The research study reviews the various challenges encountered by women on Nigeria Educational system. Hence, this study revolves round five chapters, where chapter one which is introduction provides clear cut information on what education is all about and history of women’s participation in education in Nigeria before, during and after the independence in 1960. It also analyses the plight of women’s education in Nigeria in such that provisions for improving women participation had to be made in the Nigeria National Policy of Education section 3, paragraph II of the National Policy and also states the research problems and objectives, the study to attempt to attain by providing answers to the research questions. Consequently, chapter two centers on literature reviews of other scholars and authors concerning the topic which emphasizes on women and education in Nigeria, women and work, contributions of educated women in National Development and others. However, chapter three dealt with its research methodology for the study, where the study is sampled, research instrument, the administration of its research and method of data analysis. While chapter four is based on presentation of data and interpretation of data analysis, how data were collected and the results of the collected data were discussed. Finally, chapter five mainly focused on findings of the study and pave way for recommendations and its bibliography as well as its conclusion.

Title Page
Table of Contents
1.0 Background of the study
1.1 Statement of the Problem
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Research Hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the study
1.7 Definition of Terms
2.0 Overview of women education
2.1 Theoretical framework
2.2 Women and education in Nigeria
2.3 Women, education and work
2.4 Implications for development and education
2.5 Contributions of educated women in National
2.6 Factors impinging on women’s education in Nigeria
2.7 Efforts made in promoting women’s education in Nigeria.
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Research design
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sampling and sampling techniques
3.4 Research instrument
3.5 Validity of the instrument
3.6 Reliability of the instrument
3.7 Administration of instrument
3.8 Data collection
3.9 Data analysis
Data Analysis
Presentation and Analysis of Data
5.0 Summary
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Implication for the study
5.3 Recommendation
5.4 Limitations of the study
5.5 Suggestions for further study


Studies over time have revealed that education is the most potent instrument for the emancipation of any group of people. Sambo (2000) opined that mental freedom, which usually precedes all other forms of freedom, can only be guaranteed by an effective education system. This view was further crystallized by Okeke (1995:15) when she observed that education is a sure pathway to the liberation of the mind and the improvement of socio economic status of people. History, the world over, is replete with the achievements of men and their contributions to the development processes and from time immemorial the position of women in the structure of society has never been considered on the same plain as that of men, they have been regarded as second-fiddle.
In all countries over the world, education is recognized as the cornerstone for sustainable development. It is a fulcrum around which the quick development of economic, political, sociological and human resources of any country resolves. In fact, the Nigeria national Policy on Education (1981:6) indicates that education is the greatest investment that the nation can make for the quick development of its economic political.
Having recognized education as “an instrument per-excellence for effective national development” as well as “a dynamic instrument of change”, it is also the basis for the full promotion and improvement of the status of women. Education empowers women by improving their living standard. It is the starting point for women’s advancement in different fields of human endeavour. It is the basic tool that should be given to women in order to fulfill their roles as full members of the society. In fact, the educational challenge of Nigerian women is the spring board to every other form of challenges (political, social, economic etc).
As citizens of this great nation who form a great percentage of the population, women in Nigeria are expected to contribute their quota to the development of their country. For individual and national development, it is crucial that girls and female adults should acquire or have formal education. Unfortunately, a cursory look at the pattern of women’s involvement in education in Nigeria reveals abysmal low levels. In spite of all the laudable goals and objectives of education, Nigeria women still suffer a lot of constraints and inhibitions which militate against their personal and national development.
Early history of education in Nigeria showed that women lacked easy access to formal education. By 1965, 37.7% of pupils in primary schools were girls while only 9% of under-graduates were female students. The figure rose to 25.5% by 1974 and the students were mainly enrolled in such courses as teaching and the social sciences.
It is also remarkable and significant to note that the early educational curriculum was designed to train women as teachers, nurses and clerks. They were not in medicine, politics, engineering, law and environmental studies (Achume, 2004). This obviously resulted in shortage of qualified women for top level leadership posts. In other words, majority of women/females are still not being trained and employed in areas that will enhance their chances at competing for position in public life. As can be expected, this low level of female education worsens the imbalance of power that has been existing between the sexes. One of the legacies is the absence of the female equivalence of the male political class.
The plight of women’s education in Nigeria is such that provisions for improving women’s participation had to be made in the Nigerian National Policy on Education section 3, paragraph II of the national policy states thus:
“With regard to women’s education, special efforts will be made by ministries of education and local government authorities in conjunction with ministries of community development and social welfare and information to encourage parents to send their daughters to school.”
The Nigerian government had taken several practical steps to improve women’s participation in education by establishing of full- fledged women’s education sector under the Federal Ministry of Education in 1986. It has been well observed by Alao and Ajayi (1989:8) that after more than twenty years of the existence of the women’s education section in the Federal Ministry of Education, women’s Education is still in a dire need of improvement which as a result form the basis of this work.


The contention that there was a bias against women in traditional Nigeria society is too obvious in the country that women are the subjects of growing national and international interest is unquestionable and this interest stems from the acute recognition that women are crucial to social and economic development.
However, this research work argues that the number of women who have acquired tertiary education is disproportionate to the number involved in the labour sector. Therefore, there is under utilization of manpower and a negative return in human resources. As a result, there is need for education to address the imperatives of development by liberating women from unfounded and baseless myths that keep them away from labour participation.

This paper seeks to achieve the following objectives
(i) To highlight the factors inhibiting women’s education which have contributed significantly towards female mass illiteracy in Nigeria.
(ii) To argue for the introduction and nurturing of educational programmes which will galvanize the empowerment of women of all categories in Nigeria.
(iii) To also expatiate on challenges faced by women towards educational development in Nigeria.

For the purpose of this research work, the following question shall be answered in the course of the study
(i) Has women education gives positive impact on Nigeria education?
(ii) Does sexuality education contribute to the growth of women education in Nigeria?
(iii) Does work in any way has affected women education in Nigeria?

The following hypothesis shall be tested for this research study
(i) Null hypothesis (Ho): Women education has negative impact on educational development in Nigeria.
Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): Women education has positive impact on education development in Nigeria.
(ii) Ho: Domestic work has reduced the level of women education in Nigeria
Hi: Domestic work has not reduced the level of women education in Nigeria
(iii) Ho: Distance education is not a women empowerment in Nigeria Educational system.
Hi: Distance education is an empowerment for women in
Nigeria Educational system.

The main significant of this project is to critically look at the challenges of women on Nigeria educational system.
The study shall also dwell on the relationship between women education and work be it domestic, social or political.

– Education: The sum total of experiences that a person acquires in partaking in everyday activities.
– Empowerment: The process and the result of the process whereby the powerless members of the society gain greater access and control over material
– Challenge: A call to prove something right
– Development: A new stage in a changing situation.
– System: A set of assemblage of things connected, or inter-dependent.
– Women: An adult human female.


Fafunwa (1974) defines education as the sum total of experiences that a person acquires in partaking in everyday activities and how these experiences have served to make the individual a better person.
Many social commentators hold the view that education is a sine qua non to any meaningful development process. The impact of the level of educational attainment in any society and the corresponding level of development (in terms of science and technology) is a true yardstick of this phenomenon. Majasan (1997) asserted that development in any society is anchored primarily to education progress.
Lockheed and Verspoor (1994) described education as a cornerstone of economic and social development. According to them, the future of the world and of individual nations hinges, more than ever before, on the capacity of individuals and countries to acquire, adapt, and advance knowledge.
Okafor (1984) defines education as a process of acculturation through which the individual is helped to attain the development of all his potentialities and their maximum activation when necessary, according to a right reason and thereby achieve his perfect self-fulfillment. Education is the aggregate of all the processes by which a child or young adult (male or female) develops the abilities, attitudes, and other forms of behavior which are of positive value to the society in which he/she lives. It is a process through which a person acquires knowledge, skills, habits and values that enables him to function effectively as a member of the society. Education helps one to maximize his physical, mental, and emotional capabilities which are useful for him and his society.
Women education is the process by which women acquire the knowledge, skills, norms and values and that are necessary for their development and that of the society.
Many benefits are derivable from education which includes: enhancement of the quality of living, food, housing, health, clothing, transport, communication, entertainment and gainful use of leisure.
If the vast majority of our women folk are educated, their personal development can be enhanced remarkably. Children and husbands also stand to gain tremendously. Women are likely to have more confidence in themselves and their ability to contribute effectively to national development.
Education generally concerns itself with the imparting of knowledge in people. Knowledge in this case can be seen as the corpus of instruction and social ethics, which hinge on the acquisition of abstract ideas, which makes for a refined mind and the acquisition of psycho-motor skills, which in turn makes for a skilled person or at least position one in the right frame of mind to acquire the skill necessary for existence in an atomized social order. Thus, education is first and foremost a social tool that is imperative for the continued survival and growth of the human society.
Against the background, education formal or informal, assumes a heavy social context. It is apparently easy to figure out that the lack of social contextualization of education may be responsible for the inability of education to foster genuine development in many developing societies. It is not surprising that Hoare (1976) has expressed dissatisfaction at the predominance of conservative, rationalizing, romantic and democratic thoughts on education. He sees these as too retrogressive and inane to lead to a groundswell of activities and thought processes necessary for continued progress in any society. He sees sustainable or progressive education as the one that will have the following criteria:
(a) As opposed to the conservative tradition, it should stress education as the development of critical reasoning in the individual, a questioning attitude towards all existing reality.
b) As opposed to rationalizers, it should insist on the active nature of the child’s participation in the learning process and contest the mechanist conception of education as the transmission of fixed skills.
(c) As opposed to the romantic school, it should embody a full acceptance of the social character man, rejecting forever the notion of a pre-social dimension of human existence.
(d) As opposed to the dramatic tradition, it should be dialectical, treating all human reality as radically historical.
In spite of the radical dimensions of education as implied in the above prescriptions, it is obvious that it takes as its basis the progress of society and the socialization of the process of education in which man is the measure of all things. Hoare’s attempt to place education within a social pedestal as the commodity deemed necessary by society as a collective which make individual better positioned to contribute to societal development and generally enhances the level of progress in society is a bold step in putting back education and learning where they rightly belong, that is in the social system.
Connor (1957) posits the educational system is the elaborate social mechanism designed to bring about in persons submitted to it certain skills and attitudes that are judged to be useful and desirable in the society. This means that the education derives from the social system and exists to mainly satisfy the demand of this system. In this case, education even though with a universal orientation should be dynamic enough to reflect the socio-cultural realities of the society in which it takes place. The problems of development in many African countries may be related to the inability of most of these countries to fashion their societies which are peculiar and often different from those of the original owners of the educational systems being operated.
One dominant theoretical prospective of women education and economic development (WID) approach made popular by the World Bank and other UN agencies. This approach is based on the assumption that education leads to economic development and so policies and actions for greater access to education must be based on gender equity.
The WID approach which is still popular up till now owes its emergence in the 1970s to the demands of female economist and development professionals for equality of access and opportunities for women in key development programmes and initiatives.
The demand was anchored on the argument that development planning and macro-economic policies have hardly taken cognizance of women’s experiences and needs. This has impacted negatively on women status and exposed them to poverty especially in developing countries (Lindsey 1997; Rathgeber, 1989; Boserup, 1970). Against the background the WID approach advocates for women’s inclusion in economic and educational policies and sees this as a panacea for empowerment of women and more crucially improvement in families and national development. Incidentally, the WID approach has been seen as not radically changing the situation in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of decades of campaigns, programmes and initiatives or interventions.
As opposed to the above, the radical school of thought have questioned the belief that access to education leads to economic development or empowerment of women. Interestingly, the radical school disavows the focus on issues of access, participation and productivity in the labour market and calls attention to patriarchal ideologies and institutions that reduce the status of women and de-empower them. Therefore, for the radical perspective even where women have access to education such access due to patriarchal factors often fails to address gender imbalance in power.
Hence in the case of women while the WID approach has resulted in strategies that now grant women equal access, the usage of education for empowerment in the form of gainful formal sector employment has been less than commensurate. If is along the above lines that this paper interrogates the often taken for granted direct relationship between formal education and formal sector labour participation of women. Hence, the above scenario is perhaps aptly captured in the contention, “while a minority of women acquire skills which equip them for paid employment, schooling has not fundamentally changed their subordinate position or challenged deep-rooted views of women’s primary role as unpaid wife and mother”
It must be understood that historically education in sub-saharan Africa and even Asia was initially available only for males (EFA Repot, 2003/2004). This entails that women were from the onset disadvantaged in the formal employment sector since jobs in this or are mainly negotiable through acquisition of education and skill. In fact, women’s late entrance into education and the tailoring women’s education to meet mainly domestic needs is not peculiar Nigeria.
However, the coming of colonialism and the introduction of formal education changed the order of things. The involvement of the colonial government in education eventually was ostensibly borne out of a need to make education suited to the social needs of the society as wells as equip the people of Nigeria mentally and otherwise to meet the challenges of nation building and self government.
Ukeye (1966) casts his doubts on whether these noble guided by the colonial government since the educational system put in place was largely divorced from the life of the people and emphasized aspects of education with little contribution to development. This sort of education stressed the rejection of indigenous cultures while facilitating the adoption of foreign ones.
Hence, educational policies and government’s involvement in education are sometimes solely motivated by political considerations. Thus, the colonial government ventured into education when it saw it was politically expedient. So also have the policies and action of postcolonial governments in Nigeria on education been well influenced by political considerations. While one cannot deny that, there have been profound charges in the educational system in Nigeria over the years, the point remains that taken as a whole; the educational system is still not anchored on the society’s social rubric, culture or functional needs. Thus the more educated one becomes the more alienated or distanced from his roots and culture he often becomes.
Be that as it may, women even in contemporary times still live in a male dominated world that gives more preference to the man than the woman. In the area of education, this preferential treatment of the males has persevered. But an emerging reality today is that more and more women are getting educated thus narrowing the gap between them and the men. In fact, if this trend continues with the same momentum, it will take only a few years for the women to close the gap in education between them and the men in Nigeria. As interesting as this observation appears, it has implications for the formal labour sector and the development of the nation.
This is because as more women acquire education their percentage of the manpower resources of the nation increases. Therefore more women are going to acquire the mental skill and capability necessary for work life. Besides the fact that the involvement of educated women in the labour force aids the development of the society, there is also the positive impact this exerts on the women themselves. Thus, “The relationship between family, education and work are major influences on women’s futures and on the patterns of incentives and costs facing families in deciding to send girls to schools”.
As a result, education produces the work force needed to keep the wheel of the economy turning. Education then contributes in concrete terms to development basically when those educated submit themselves to work and seek some form of actualization of fulfillment in the work process.

According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), (2007), 1.2 billion of the 2 billion workers in the world in 2006 were women. But the report goes on to state that while the gender employment gap is closing in some countries, trends vary from region to region. Thus, while 80 women per men are economically active in the developed countries/economies of the world, the ratio for Sub-Saharan Africa is lower at 75 women per 100 men. While the above remains valid the fact is that, in Nigeria there appears to be hardly a direct or one to one relationship between education and employment. Hence, the number of women in formal employment is not commensurate with the number of women with formal education. Moreover a disproportionate number of such economically active women are located in the informal sector where education is not a key variable in involvement.
Be that as it may, work can be seen as an activity that produces value for other people (Akpala, 1982). Work then refers to the participation of an individual in the labour process or employment. Generally, women’s participation in the labour sector on Nigeria was given a boost by the demise of colonialism and the subsequent accelerated efforts at national development. Until the late 1960s, women were virtually not seen in the formal sector of the Nigerian economy. As a result, it was the atmosphere of general industrial development and urban growth that led to a change in orientation towards women as people who could also be meaningfully used in the economic process as the society.
Despite the contention of Grint (1991) and Rees (1990) that global changes as a result of industrial restructuring gave rise to women’s involvement in paid employment, it is obvious that this involvement would not have been possible without women’s possession of skills and education. This, until women in Nigeria became serious human resources with all manner of qualifications, just like their male counterparts, they were not considered as real contributors to the economic system. Prior to this, women were mainly seen as reserve mental and physical resources called upon only in an emergency to help in national development.
Interestingly, Pearson (1999), Catagay and Ozler (1995) have related the increasing female labour force participation to the impact of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) which has meant declining real wages, declining government social provisioning and withdrawal or cut back on subsidies. These conditions have meant equally increased challenges of survival amongst families and may have forced many women to seek employment in order to ensure family survival. However, SAP may have more female labour participation in some cases; reverse may be the case in some other counties especially those in transition and where there is increasing in formalization of female labour.
Women’s first emergence as contenders in the formal labour or economic sector in Nigeria occurred in the area of teaching particularly at the primary school level. The considerable in-roads which women made in this area can be attributed to two main factors vis: women’s possession of the qualification needed and their natural flair for teaching children; and men’s increasing displeasure or discontentment with teaching especially at the primary school level. The ILO (1992) projection up to 1980, taking cognizance of women’s improved education see women as constituting about 7million of Nigeria’s labour force. But since 1980, women’s participation in education especially at the tertiary level has improved significantly, thus by a one way logic, one would expect that a lot more women would be involved in the labour process in Nigeria now. But this optimism does not really take heed of the fact that the labour market in Nigeria may not actually be a free entry and exit domain for women. In this regard, women’s labour force participation despite their increasing possession of education and skill may be fraught with some obstacles.
One of the obstacles is the patriarchal nature of the Nigerian labour market. In this sense, women may have to content with the fact that men see themselves as the rightful owners of the formal economic sector and abundant socio-cultural practices support this.
Fapohunda (1978) posits Nigerian women’s modern economic sector behavior is influenced by dynamic economic and socio factors which invariably predispose employers to display bias against women. Another factor affecting women’s employment is their productive roles which often entail working part-time or interrupting employment to raise children. Also women face a good number of constraints to formal employment besides education. Some of these includes lower income in relation to men, low quality employment, sexual harassment and violent and exclusion from retirement and pensions.
Hence, the number of women who eventually get employed in the formal economic sector may not really reflect the increase in the number of women who are qualified to be there. Closely related to this, is the nature of the society. Men are usually more likely to see their wives as first and foremost home makers rather than fellow workers and partners in national development. This had led to a situation whereby many women despite their educational attainments or qualifications have been kept out of the economy because of the desire of the husbands. This is particularly the case where the man has the means with which to take care of the whole family.
Another obstacle is the women’s attitudinal and psychological disposition at the work place. Many women approach the labour market with the wrong mental and behavioural attitudes. They display attitudes and work orientations that show them as not hardworking, committed and not able to shoulder work related pressures and stress. In other words, many take shelter in social bias against none workers and rather than throw themselves into their jobs, throw their jobs at the men. This creates the impression that women workers cannot be expected to be as productive as the man neither can they be relied upon in time difficulties or when work demands going the extra mile.
Worth noting again is the fact that women’s choice of marriage partners also contributes to their eventual participation at work place. This may create a situation whereby women do not seek employment despite the great investment made in their education because of the type of husbands they marry. Therefore we arrive at uneasy realization that a lot of the women who work do it out of concern to earn money in order to complement their husband income or are driven to work because of the non-existence of a male bread winner (in the case of divorced women, widows and single parents).
The above problems negate the perceived benefits of increasing access of women to education. Apart from its clear development impact, female education is seen generally as investment that yields high returns in terms of social and economic gains. However, this optimistic outlook is realizable in such societies in which patriarchal counter influences are at a minimum. In other words, socio-cultural factors generated influence women’s usage of knowledge and skills acquired through education.
According to world economic forum (2007), there is no gain saying the fact that, the involvement of educated women in employment goes a long way in family and societal improvement. Thus, decent work and wages list women and their children out of poverty and exerts a positive impact on the growth of nations and development.
Development in this regard means to increase and expand the potentials of an individual or group in a positive direction. Development event though generally appreciated is not a very easy concept to define.
Tomori (1979) posits that development implies modernization of a society, entails the conversation of a peasant society, entails the conversation of a peasant society into an industrial one and means a change in the whole way of life, an expectations and motivations and even in the physical environment of daily life.
In this case, education is more or less directly related to development. The more educated a nation’s citizenry the more likely developed the nation in question. In the same vein, any economic system that fails consummate its human resources because of gender differences cannot realize real or genuine development. It is in this case that the education of women in Nigeria, their involvement in work and the effects of this on development becomes more important.
Afigbo (1991) argued a harmonious and mutually acceptable reconciliation between the roles of women in social, economic and political development and their traditional role of the lynchpin in of the family has not been achieved. Therefore women still see themselves and are largely seen as mainly reserve role players whose domain of influence is strictly at the domestic front. This orientation is anti-development since by virtue of their population, the non-active participation of women in the economy cannot be anything but counter productive.
In addition to this, is the fact that education becomes a tool of development only when its fruits are realized in the process of work. In other words, education can contribute meaningfully to development where those educated submit themselves to work. Contrary to some opinions, women often turn out better workers than men after their initial fears and apprehensions have been allayed.
Actually, they are often seen as possessing the submissiveness, kind nature and thoroughness that work demands. In this frame, women’s participation at the work place may have been limited more by social impediments and dominant male biased orientations than by the fact that they are not really suitable workers.
However, the point remains that women have most times been willing to conform to those societal notions that keep them out of work or see them as inadequate workers. Hence, their psychological dispositions and general work attitudes may have reinforced these notions. Definitely while some women in Nigeria have risen to the challenge of the work place and excelled in the process, a greater number of women have gladly maintained a below average performance at the work place.
This is where the challenge to education in the views of the radical school of thought lies. The educational system in Nigeria should be tailored to liberate the individual form unfounded and baseless myths and stereotypes while facilitating societal progress and positive transformation. This according to Hoare (1976) makes the democrats’ and rationalizers’ conceptualizations of education irrelevant, since they hardly emphasize the end to which the education is put. As a result, any educational system which does not make women realize that there is something inherently wrong with the non-utilization of the skills and aptitudes acquired is certainly inadequate, especially in a developing society that needs the participation of all to ensure growth. Women who possess good educational qualifications and end up only in some domestic front or kitchen make little use of the investment that their education constitutes.
Schultz (1971) posits that in the case of a developing country like Nigeria, education can only be conceived as a form of investment in human capital and which is expected to yield some returns. The returns accrue as the individual involves herself in the economic here of the society and in the process contributes to the general development of the society.
Clark (1992) aptly posits the road to a successful career for anybody is through education, at the highest level.
Educated women have contributed tremendously in national development. Some of their contributions are as follows
(a) Marital objection
Education helps in the fulfillment of women’s obligation. A married woman is expected to take care of her home, husband and children. She is expected to use whatever knowledge and skills she has to cook, clean and rear her children. There is no doubt that a woman who is educated is able to read about health care, nutrition, body changes, modern household equipment, etc will perform creditably well her God-given responsibility to the home and society at large. An educated woman will be able to help her children with the school assignments. She may also go beyond that to further enlighten them in their school work, attend Parents Teachers Association (PTA) meetings and inquire about the academic performances of her children. This will ensure blissful homes, well educated and well-behaved children and contented husbands and an endowed nation.
(b) Agricultural Development
Half of the world’s population are women and two third of the work is done by them. About 75% of agricultural product/output is produced through women’s effort in Africa (Adeyeye, 1987). Ironically, the people that participate most in agricultural production are the least educated. Therefore, provision of basic literacy and skill acquisition for illiterate females will no doubt ensure bumper agricultural production.
(c) Health
Mother help in no small measure in securing perfect health for the children and by so doing for the entire community and nation. Attaining good health starts right from the womb. It starts from the pregnant mother knowing and taking what constitute balanced diet, abstaining from damaging drugs, and actions inimical to the health of the baby.
A woman can beware of all these harmful condition if she is educated, since most enlightenment campaigns against diseases are transmitted either through the radio, television, newspapers, and posters or in the local languages or English language. If women are educated they will have knowledge of basic health care and will be in a position to help others to maintain and improve their own health.

(d) National Reconstruction
If women are educated, they will be able to assist in nation building and reconstruction. A few women are currently holding powerful positions in our country and in the world. There is still room for improvement if more women are educated. Perhaps with more women holding the mantle in the male dominated political arena, the socio-political state of affairs, the world over will definitely improve.
(e) Social development
The improvement of society could be effected through the development of the potentialities of the women folk. The 1978 general conference of UNESCO meeting said.
“Increasing educational opportunities for women boosts equity and national development. The potential contribution of educated and trained women to labour force and the importance of their education in the improvement of family welfare and planning are factors still under-estimated in national development”.
It is also pertinent to note that the higher the level of education, the greater the likelihood that a women will stay in the labour force. The participation of women with University degree is more than double that of women who have only primary education. This creates an ever increasing pool of experienced and skilled personnel and from which supervisory and management positions can be filled.
(f) Economic development
In the economic sphere most women engage in small scale businesses. Also, women who are married to entrepreneurs and big time businessman will be able to help such husbands if educated. They will be able to converse with such husbands intelligently and offer useful advice to them concerning their jobs.
Such women will be able to deal with their husband business partners, friends and other highly placed associates without the slightest feeling of inferiority or shame. Furthermore, if women are educated and are gainfully employed, they can assist their husbands in financing the home and the education of their children.
The following are factors impinging on women’s education in Nigeria
(i) Economic Constraints
For economic reasons, many parents consider women’s education as a waste of funds. They believe that money spent on girl’s education is a waste, since she will soon marry into her husband’s family, thus leaving only in their original family to cater for their parents. As such girls fall victims of not being educated.
(ii) Chuavism
Some men do not believe in the education of women including their female children and wives with the belief that the place of the woman is in the kitchen thereby compounded women’s desire for quality education by making things difficult for women when it comes to educational development.
(iii) Gender differentials in Education
Alele-Williams (1986) notes that existing data on data on Nigeria show that all levels of education, fewer girls than boys are enrolled at school despite the numerical advantage of females. For example, girls drop out more often from school due to pregnancies, early marriages, and heavy demand on girl’s time to perform household tasks, and economic reasons; and because of limited occupational choices for female students. The educational imbalance between men and women in Nigeria is due to societal tradition and myths which relegate women’s education to the background vis-à-vis men.
(iv) Religious Constraint
The forces of religion are also partly responsible for the present plight of women’s education in Nigeria. None of these major religions in Nigeria, (Christianity, Islam and traditional) religions endorses equality between men and women. The exemption of women from priesthood in the most Christian denominations further confirms this submission. Likewise the practice of “purdat” in Islam makes it difficult for married Muslim women to fully benefit from the educational system. Other factors that impinge woman education in Nigeria:
– House keeping, family and school life constraints
– Traditional /cultural constraints.
– Negative attitude of some parents to women’s education
– Stereotypes about women
– Unequal employment opportunities
– Early marriages
Many programmes have been used by the Federal Government of Nigeria to promote women’s adult and non-formal education. These are:
 Womens’ Education Programme: In 1986 the Blueprint of women education in Nigeria was launched, followed by the setting up of women education unit of federal and state ministries of education. These units cater for both rural and urban women who desire to further their education.
The overall aim of it is to avail all women equal educational opportunities irrespective of their age, locality, creed or social status.
 Mass literacy programme: In 1991, Nigeria set up the National Commission for Mass Literacy and Non formal Education (NMEC) charging it with the many Christian and Muslim women’s organizations are active in offering adult and non- formal educational opportunities to women. Also, many NGOs like officer’s wives Associations of the Nigerian Armed Forces (Army, Navy and Airforce) contribute towards to growth of women education in Nigeria.
Donor agencies such as UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, British council etc all contributed enormously to the various educational programmes for women.


The chapter presents the procedures and methodology to be used in answering relevant research questions and testing for the validity of research hypothesis. It also explains the data collection, sampling design as well as description of data collection instrument.
Fagbohungbe (1993) defines research design as an action plan that allows a researcher to provide a solution to the problem of who to study, what to study, how to study, when to study, where to study and how to generate data in that research situation.
For the purpose of this study, a descriptive survey research was adopted in order to investigate the challenges of women on Nigeria educational development. It shall focus on the population of various staff in Oshodi-Isolo Local government area of Lagos state.
The study covers the entire population of Oshodi-isolo local government. It includes the management, the top level staff, middle level as well as the junior staff.
For this study, simple random sampling will be used to ensure that every members of the local government have equal chance of being selected or represented in the sampling.
A sample of one hundred (100) will be taken and questions will be presented to all the staff of the local government. This is to ensure that every members of the population is represented in the sampling.
Questionnaire shall be used as a major research instrument. It consists of two sections; section A and section B. the section A contains information related to biographical data of the respondents while section B contains information about the subject matter of the project.
Validity of research instrument is the extent to which any measurement accurately reflects what is supposed to measures. This research work was able to point out the challenges and empowerment of women towards educational development in Nigeria. This was achieved through various responses gotten from the questionnaire being distributed.
Reliability is the degree to which a particular measurement generates similar response over time. This study has shown that there is high degree of challenges of women as regards developing educational system in Nigeria.

The questionnaires were distributed to all the staff of Oshodi, Isolo Local Government of which Eighty (80) out of the one hundred (100) was returned and then worked upon.
The result of the questionnaire (responses) being distributed were collated for further analysis of the research. Also, for effectiveness of this work, personal interview was also conducted with some staff of the local government as well as various books was consulted.
For the purpose of this study, the hypothesis will be tested by using Pearson Moment Product and will then satisfy the conditions below:
(i) The Null hypothesis (Ho) will be rejected it falls between negative value and 0.25.
(ii) The null hypothesis will be accepted if it is positive and greater than 0.23.


This chapter focuses on detail information on which data will be examined and analyzed.
There is a need to analyze data collected from the respondents through questionnaire for clarity, simplicity and better comprehension. The presentation and analysis of data were analyzed using Pearson Moment Product a total number of hundred (100) questionnaires were distributed out of which were returned.
Description Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Male 1 25 31.35%
Female 2 55 68.75%
Total 80 100
Description Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Below 25yrs 1 6 7.5%
25-35yrs 2 19 23.75%
36-45yrs 3 38 47.5%
45 yrs & above 4 17 21.25%
Total 80 100

The above table shows that 7.5% of the respondents are below 25years of age, 23.75% of the respondents are within the age of 25years and 35years, 47.5% falls within the age of 36 and 45 years while 21.25% of the respondents are above 45years.

Description Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Single 1 35 43.75%
Married 2 38 47.5%
Divorce 3 7 47.5%
Total 80 100

The table above indicates 43.75% of the respondents are single, 47.5% of them are married while 8.75% of them are divorce.
Description Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Principal 1 17 21.25%
Head teacher 2 23 28.75%
Secretary 3 10 12.5%
Junior staff 4 30 37.5%
Total 80 100

The above table shows that 21.25% of the respondents are principal, 28.75% of them are head teacher, 12.5% of them are secretary while 37.5% of the respondents are junior staff.
Description Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Below 5yrs 1 10 12.5%
5-10yrs 2 11 13.75%
11-15yrs 3 10 12.5%
16-20yrs 4 24 30%
Above 20yrs 5 25 31.25%
Total 80 100

The above table indicates 12.5% of the respondents have below 5 years in the education system, 13.75% of them fall between 5 years and 10 years experience, 12.5% of them are between 11 and 15 years of experience 25% of them fall between 16 and 20 years while 31.25% of them have above 20 years of job experience.
QUESTION 1: Does women education has impact on educational development in Nigeria?
Variables Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 5 34 42.5%
Agree 4 30 37.5%
Undecided 3 3 3.75%
Disagree 2 3 3.75%
Strongly Disagree 1 10 12.5%
Total 80 100

The above table indicates that 42.5% of the respondents strongly agree that women education has impact on educational development in Nigeria, 37.5% of them agreed to the statement, 3.75% of each undecided and disagreed respectively while 12.5% of them strongly disagree that women education has impact on educational development in Nigeria.
Variables Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 5 15 18.7%
Agree 4 15 18.75%
Undecided 3 1 1.25%
Disagree 2 30 37.5%
Strongly Disagree 1 19 23.75%
Total 80 100

From the above table 18.75% of the respondents strongly agreed and also agreed that domestic works reduced the level of women education in Nigeria, 1.25% of them could not decide, 37.5% of them disagreed while 19% of the respondents strongly disagree that domestic work reduced the level of women education in Nigeria.

QUESTION 3: Is distance education an empowerment for women in Nigeria Educational System.
Variables Code Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 5 10 12.5%
Agree 4 15 18.75%
Undecided 3 5 6.25%
Disagree 2 35 43.75%
Strongly Disagree 1 15 18.75
Total 80 100

The table above shows that 12.5% of the respondents strongly agreed that distance education in an empowerment for women in Nigeria educational system, 18.75% agree to it, 18.75% of the respondents strongly disagreed that distance education is an empowerment for women in Nigeria Educational System.

Ho: Women education has negative impact on the Educational Development in Nigeria.
Using Pearson Moment Product
R = nxy – x y
(nx2 – (x2) (ny2 – (y)
N = Number of respondents
X = Independent variable
Y = Dependent variable
 = Summation
Variables Code (X) Frequency X2 Y2 XY
Strongly Agree 5 34 25 1156 170
Agree 4 30 16 900 120
Undecided 3 3 9 9 9
Disagree 2 3 4 9 6
Strongly Disagree 1 10 1 100 10
15 80 55 1274 315

N = 5,  = 15, y = 80
X2 = 55, y2 = 1274, xy = 315
R = nxy – x y
nx2 – (x2) (ny2 – (y2)
= 5(315) – (15) (80)
5(55) – 152 (5)1274 – 802
1575 – 1200 375
50 X 30 1500 = 9.68

Since the correlation is positive and greater than 0.25, the null hypothesis will be accepted i.e. moment education have negative impact on educational development in Nigeria.
H0: Domestic work reduced the level of women education in Nigeria.
H1: Domestic work increases the level of women education in Nigeria.
Variables Code (X) Frequency X2 Y2 XY
Strongly Agree 5 15 25 225 25
Agree 4 15 16 225 60
Undecided 3 1 9 1 3
Disagree 2 30 4 900 6
Strongly Disagree 1 19 1 361 19
15 80 55 1712 217

N = 5,  = 15, y = 80
x2 = 55, y2 = 579, xy = 217
R = nxy – x y
(n x2 – (x2) (ny2 – (y2)
= 5(217) – (15) (80)
5(55) – (15)2 (5 (1712) – 802
1085 – 1200 – 115
50 X 2160 10800 = 1.11
Since the correlation is positive, the null reduced hypothesis is accepted i.e. Domestic work reduced the level of women education in Nigeria.
H0: Distance education is n empowerment for women in Nigeria educational system.
H1: Distance education is not an empowerment for women in Nigeria educational system.
Variables Code (X) Frequency X2 Y2 XY
Strongly Agree 5 10 25 100 50
Agree 4 15 16 225 60
Undecided 3 15 9 25 15
Disagree 2 35 4 1225 70
Strongly Disagree 1 15 1 225 15
15 80 55 1800 210

N = 5,  = 15, y = 80
x2 = 55, y2 = 1800, xy = 210
R = nxy – x y
n x2 – (x2) (ny2 – (y2)
= 5(210) – (15) (80)
5(55) – (15)2 (5(1800) – 802
1085 – 1200 -150 = -150
50 X 2600 130000 360 = 0.42
Since the correlation is greater than 0.23, the null hypothesis is accepted i.e. distance education is an empowerment for women education in Nigeria.


Education is recognized worldwide as the fulcrum around which the quick development of any nation revolves. It is also the basis for the full promotion and improvement of the status of women in any society.
However, a cursory look at the pattern of women is involvement in education in Nigeria reveal abysmal low levels. In spite of all the laudable goals, objectives and benefits derived from education, Nigeria women still suffer a lot of constraints and inhibition which militate against their personal and national development.
Considering the efforts made by the various level of government (Federal, state and local) coupled with non-governmental organization (NGOs) and donor agencies, there are still more to be done in the area of girls and women education.
From the foregoing presentation, the thesis that education automatically translates to improved labour involvement for women should be taken cautiously. Education is seen as a form of investment in human capital. The rate of development of a nation is related to its investment in this human capital. But education can only perform this task when those who possess this education use their skills and knowledge at the work place, be they females and males. A situation where a substantial number of educated people stay away from work and from participation in the economy because they are women will only create distortion, and inequality in the growth or development process therefore, one agrees totally with the submission that, “policy makers and employers not only need to place women’s employment in the centre of social and economic policies, they also need to recognize that the challenges faced by women as regards estuation in the world as a whole require intervention failure to specific needs”
There is no saying the fact that, the movement of educated women in employment goes along way in family and social improvement. Thus, decent work and wages list women and their children out of poverty and exerts a positive impact on the growth of nations and development. Development in this sense means to increase and expand the potentials of an individual or group in a position direction. In order words, education is more or less directly related to development. The more educated a nation’s citizenry the more likely developed the nation in question. In the same rein, an economic system that fails to consummate its human resources because of gender differences cannot realize real or genuine development. As a result, education of women in Nigeria, their involvement in work and the effects of this on development becomes important.
For this study, the following are recommended.
(i) Government should try as much as possible to initiate an extensive enlightenment campaign in changing the negative attitude people have against women education in Nigeria.
(ii) There should be a research centre for women studies all over the country.
(iii) Government should also make sure there are pro-women government policies like enforcing existing laws prohibiting hawking and street trading by girls with penalties stipulated for contrary behaviours and also enforcing legal provision of penalties for withdrawal of girls from school for marriage.

Some constraints and challenges in the course of carrying out this project and which hindered a full compressive work of it. Some of them there was no enough for the research work and also financial constraint is also one of the setbacks of this study and also gathering enough information for the work was also a major setback.
For the purpose of the study, the future should by as much as possible to work more extensively on the challenges of women on Nigeria educational system and also endeavor to make use of different research duty for the data analysis.

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Please indicate by marking “√” in the appropriate box provided
1. Sex Male ( ) Female ( )
2. Marital status Single ( ) Married ( ) Divorce ( )
3. Age 18 – 25 years ( ) 26 –35 years ( )
36 – 45 years ( ) Above 45 years ( )
4. Educational qualification
Second Degree/Professional

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