UTILIZATION OF LOCAL RESOURCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS

UTILIZATION OF LOCAL RESOURCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS A CASE STUDY OF FERMENTATION OF CASSAVA AND MAIZE IN THE PRODUCTION OF LOCALLY MADE FOODS

ABSTRACT

This study examines the use of local resources to develop entrepreneurial abilities and an investigation into the fermentation of maize and cassava to produce local-produced foods at Oto Ijanikin, Lagos. They made cassava and maize products during the research, including peeling, washing and fermentation, sieving, mixing, dewatering, and cooking the cassava through mechanized detoxification fermentation. Acid hydrolysis was conducted along with maize fermentation, and the final products were fufu and gari. Based on the information and knowledge gained during the study and the recommendations made. These products are a staple of food for people. Thus, it is a source of developing entrepreneurial abilities for individuals or groups.

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE i

CERTIFICATION ii

DEDICATION iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

ABSTRACT v

TABLE OF CONTENT vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 4

1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY 4

1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY 5

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 5

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 5

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 THE CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP 7

2.2 CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN BIOLOGY 8

2.3 WHO IS AN ENTREPRENEUR? 9

2.4 AN ENTREPRENEURIAL AND ITS ATTRIBUTE 10

2.5 BENEFIT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP 14

2.6 NEED FOR BIOLOGY ENTREPRENEURSHIP 15

2.7 ROLES OF BIOLOGY IN ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT 16

2.8 BIOLOGY EDUCATION AND IMPLEMENTATION TO ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA 17

2.9 BARRIERS TO BIOLOGY ENTREPRENEURSHIP 18

2.10 IMPACT OF SKILL ACQUISITION ON STUDENTS 18

2.11 USES OF CASSAVA 20

2.12 IMPORTANCE OF CASSAVA IN THE WORLD 22

2.13 LOCAL PREPARATION AND USES OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) 23

2.14 CONCEPT OF FERMENTATION 26

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION 28

3.2 PROCESS OF PRODUCING CASSAVA & MAIZE PRODUCTS 28

CHAPTER FOUR

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

4.1 SUMMARY 33

4.2 CONCLUSION 34

4.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 34

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY 35

4.5 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 36

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Education is the primary vehicle for human growth. It lets individuals gain capabilities and the knowledge needed to be self-sufficient and personal empowerment, resulting from developing entrepreneurial abilities.

Education can help people be confident in themselves and achieve the best on the job. Employment can be made for many by using local resources, such as the fermentation of cassava and maize to create local found such as Garri Fufu, Eba, Pap, and many more.

Unemployment and underemployment are significant obstacles to the progress of the economic development of any country. In reality, they are an evident waste of the nation’s human resources. Unemployment is among the significant social issues that plague this Nigerian nation. The burden of unemployment and the resulting poverty has resulted in youngsters’ lousy behavior within the community; This is because the majority of violent crimes, such as the armed robbery and militancy, political agitation, ethnic clashes, Boko Haram insurgence, and other social crimes in Nigeria could be attributed to the high level of unemployment [Okafor, 2011,(Okafor, 2011). Aladekomo (2004) says that Aladekomo (2004) the unemployed youth are taking revenge on the society that has not given them the proper direction. The high unemployment rates among students have long been a source of concern for government officials in the Nigerian government. A well-rounded education that enables students with the skills to challenge existing norms and offer alternative options is the best way to get out of the current economic state.

The necessity for Nigerian young people to explore ways to self-employment and achieve their goals is now a necessity. That is to say, Nigerian youths can no depend on the Nigerian market for employment to offer jobs previously unobtainable. They must come up with another source of employment which is self-employment. That is, they must be entrepreneurs. In the words of Aminu (2008), the term “entrepreneur” refers to the act of inventing something new that has worth it by putting in the time and effort required and taking on the mental, physical and financial risk, and reaping the rewards in terms of money as well as personal satisfaction and autonomy.

Aminu (2008) describes an entrepreneur as one who can discern and evaluate business opportunities, gather the resources needed to make the most of them, and take action to make sure they succeed. The author further claims that an entrepreneur of the typical is a risk-taker, someone who can take on the fear, sets independently and by nature, with a sense of the mission and a single-minded focus. Some entrepreneurs create a business and sustain an activity that never existed previously. Entrepreneurship is a crucial aspect of the development of the Nigerian economy. The skills required for entrepreneurs are needed to succeed in business, particularly in teaching. Entrepreneurial skills are the fundamental capabilities required to launch, develop, finance, and grow a venture. The Federal Republic of Nigeria and its national policy on education (2004) encourage teachers to design instruction focused on concepts, activities-based, and work-related. This is a clear indication of the need to concentrate on developing entrepreneurial abilities in instruction in schools to benefit the students and society.

This highlights the need to emphasize the development of entrepreneurial abilities in the classroom for the good of society and the school. Over the past few years, over 70 percent of high school students have difficulty getting admission to higher education institutions, and over 60% of those who graduate cannot find work immediately due to being untrained (MDG 2005); This has made many go the business world, but unfortunately, they are not fully equipped to meet the challenges of starting a business. One of the primary reasons for this is our education system’s nature, which produces “job seekers” instead of “job creators.” To create job creators, there is a necessity to incorporate the spirit of entrepreneurship in the method of instruction used by science teachers to help create entrepreneurs among students. Ogunleye (2007) explicitly stated that incorporating the concept of entrepreneurship into the curriculum of science could be the basis for the nation’s long-term and sustainable technological development.

In this context, to achieve this, it is said that the Federal Government has formulated various policies that guide the actions toward finding lasting solutions for the obstacles. In this context, the World Bank (2012) reported that Nigeria’s strategy to address the shady situation was the restructure the sector of education.

The 6-3-3-4 educational system in Nigeria was initiated in 1982 and introduced various changes to Nigeria’s educational system. One of the valuable changes is the introduction of vocational subjects into primary school curricula in Nigeria. The junior secondary school level was where vocational subjects were introduced to the curriculum. Vocational courses were added at the higher secondary stage. The purpose of these vocational subjects is to introduce students from their JSS stage to the work world by allowing them to explore. This exposure helped JSS students to make an informed choice of a career. Some pre-vocational subjects include practical agriculture, home economics, and business studies. Introduction to Technology integrates woodwork, metalwork, electronics, and fundamental elements, including applied electricity, water flow technology, airflow technology, food preservation, automotive engineering, mechanical design rubber technology, physics, plastics, and chemistry technology for building ceramics. Business studies include shorthand, typewriting, bookkeeping, office practices, commerce, and computer science. The main goals of JSS Education are to develop in students their manipulative abilities (manual dexterity), creativity, respect for the dignity of labor, and above all, a positive attitude towards technical things [Fafunwa 2002[Fafunwa, 2002]. The recommended technical and vocational subjects are Agricultural Science clothing and Textile and Home Management on the SSS level. Food and Nutrition, Typewriting & Shorthand, Principles of Accounts, Commerce, Woodwork, Technical Drawing, Basic Electronics, Building Construction, Applied Electricity, and Auto Mechanics. Unfortunately, more than three decades after enacting this noble initiative, most Nigerian youngsters are still unemployed. Some have been involved in various crimes because of their lack of work. Many students who have finished their secondary education but did not get admission into higher education universities face a dilemma. One reason is that they are not equipped with the necessary skills to work for themselves or pay [Igwe 2007Igwe, 2007. In order to ensure a bright future for Nigeria’s young people, who are considered to be the next leaders of the nation. This research project concentrates on the use the local resource.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The issue of unemployment is not exclusive to Nigeria; It is a global problem. Nations have implemented a variety of actions, yet the problem is getting worse by the day. The concept of entrepreneurship, which requires the development of capabilities, has been recognized as a way to make students self-sufficient. The skills required for this need to be developed, and their growth requires an understanding of the biology curriculum. Therefore, this study solely focuses on applying local resources to developing entrepreneurial abilities—a case study of the fermentation of maize and cassava in the production of local food products.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The principal reason for this research is to

  1. Use local resources to create local food items like fufu, garri, and Pap.
  2. Confirm that the use of resources empowers graduates.
  3. Consider the steps or roles which occur in the process of fermentation.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

This research focuses specifically on applying local resources to develop entrepreneurial abilities for self-reliance at Lagos State tertiary institutions.

1:5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The research team is convinced that research of this type would be of tremendous benefit to the graduate as well as the general population of the country, particularly Lagos State who have not secured a job to provide living, since this could help lower the unemployment rate as well as increase confidence and independence and also be a source of food for the majority of people.

The research will help establish local businesses that use local resources like maize, cassava, food production, and many other applications.

Graduates will be able to be employers of labor. It can also help those who have graduated and are looking for white-collar jobs. Get self-employed.

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Entrepreneurs: An entrepreneur is an individual who plans and oversees a business and who takes on risks to earn a profit.

The person tends to create ventures based upon specific abilities obtained via formal training or the field of work or profession. The term ” someone ” can also be described as “someone” who acts with an ambition beyond the scope of the resources under their control and is constantly in pursuit of possibilities in Olawale (2007).

FermentationThis can be defined by the activity of microorganisms on a specific food item for a certain period of duration, in which the product has experienced significant changes.

Glycolysis is a chemical reaction involving the breakdown of glucose into a 3-carbon molecule, a pyruvic acid.

 Enzymes: These are the organic catalysts that alter the speed of chemical reactions in the body but without modifications.

Organic material The term “organic material” can be described as the things made of living things and then organized into an organized system.

HTML0 – Educational: This is an unavoidable idea and property of human endeavor. It involves the transmission of experiences, knowledge, and values of the human community through generations to enable individuals to contribute to their community.

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