THE USEFULNESS OF COMPUTER LABORATORY IN TEACHING COMPUTER SUBJECT

THE USEFULNESS OF COMPUTER LABORATORY IN TEACHING COMPUTER SUBJECT(A CASE STUDY OF OJ0 LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE)

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • LITERATURE REVIEW

INTRODUCTION:

There are lots of research work on computer study such as computer and programming computer and development, computer and its usefulness in educational sector, but very few materials are available for the usefulness of computer laboratory in teaching computer subjects is very unique because it has to do with the importance of computer laboratory for teaching computer science.

The following are the contents of the research work.

  • Nature and mode of presentation of computer laboratory.
  • Computer and computer laboratory
  • Computer laboratory management techniques in teaching computer subjects
  • Computer laboratory guideline.
    • Nature of computer Laboratory

A computer laboratory is a cluster of computer that usually are networked and available for use by the public.  Laboratory frequency are found in public building such as libraries, schools such as colleges and universities, communities centre and some large churches that have many parishioners (Cliford, 2011) almost all computer laboratory offer users access to the internet and provide software that students can use to do research and complete their homework or that others, such as traveling business people, might need for other purposes.

An internet café differences from a computer laboratory, in that users must connect to the internet using their own computer or device, and users of a computer laboratory do not need any  equipment on their own. There is the need for protection and restrictions within  networks available to the public users might be denied access to websites featuring adult content or sites that demand too much bandwidth. Those using a computer laboratory also usually are allowed a limited amount of time to be signed on to a machine, whether surfing the internet or usi9ng software to do other work, seldom is there a charge to use a public computer laboratory, but laboratories in educational facilities tend to be available only to current students of the school, and they usually must sign on so that their  acitivities can be traced and monitored if necessary (Adeoye, 2010). Computer laboratories can be found in laboratories, community centers, company with it department that requires such a place for their employees to do their jobs and research centres. They are distinct from internet cafes in that the usage of the computer laboratory is typically free for those with access (Clifford, 2011). However, computer laboratory in school are available for students and teachers to surf for current information. For information and communication technology (ICT) to be properly implemented and utilized in the country development, computer laboratory is called for in every secondary schools, and if possible all phases of educational sector.

  • Computer and Computer Laboratory

A computer could be described as an electronic device that is capable of performing the following tasks, accepting data as an input, processing the data according to prescribed instructions, storing the data for future use and supplying the processed data in a suitable output format according to Raman (2011) a computer is an electronic machine or a set of device that work under the control of a stored program, accept and automatically processes data to provide information in a specified format. Computer also store and manipulate large quantities of data at very high speed.

According to Brook (2008) a computer is an electronic mechanical data processing. That machine is capable of accepting data as an input, keeping (store) the data for future retrieval, processing the data according to the users logic (programmer) and bringing out the result (output) at a very high speed.

Adewoyin (2005) viewed computer as electronic machine which with the ad of store programme is able to accept data, process data and come up with result (output) which is useful to the user.

Akinola (2009), opined that a computer is an electronic machine that is capable of solving complex problem quickly and accurately.

From the above definition and other similar definition, there are three basic terms which are inherent and they are three basic terms which are required in grasping the nature of a computer,

INPUT: This refers to the raw data which need to be processed.

PROCESSING: It refers to the way the data is used or transformed. Processing follows some set of predetermine instructions which may include classifying arranging and summarizing the data

OUTPUT: This is refers to as the information derived by processing the data

       It is also necessary to discuss what computer laboratory is all about. According to scientific dictionary computer and other computer and other computer parts are kept, used for scientific research, practical and testing.

According to Aremu (2005) computer laboratory was described as follows:

  • It means the live demonstration of procedure on computer to students
  • It is a room where we use computer to communicate facts and concept to learners based on what they see and praticallized
  • It is the use of computer to accomplish the teaching functions and to reduce the teacher stress.

Computer laboratory is a place to record, store, preserve and transmit a retrieve information, it is basically the source to obtain knowledge, new ideas as well as to acquire new skills and competences.

When computer laboratory is properly arranged and utilized, it helps to make the message of the teachers vivid, interesting and intelligible.

According to Wiltich (2010). All computer laboratories help for perception, understanding, transferring of training, providing reinforcement or knowledge of result and retention.

In their book of computer environment their asserted that learning, seeing, touching and listening are gateways of human learning of computer science

Robbert (2008), pointed out the following advantages of computer laboratory utilization

  1. It increases the rate of learning as well as allowing teachers to use more than gainful activities in teaching
  2. It encourages individualizing education which enables the learner to choose the learn at his own pace
  3. It encourages involvement of teachers in curriculum designed development
  4. Finally it makes access to education more equal for learners. He suggested that the teacher must:
  • Obtain students participation
  • Relate the qualities of computer laboratory to the demands of he task
  • Teacher repeatedly expose students to computer, the process being an effectively reinforcement. Computer laboratory are shared by multiple users, computers in typical labs often have security software
    • computer laboratory management techniques in teaching computer subjects
  • Have student turned off their computer, their monitor while the teacher gives directions
  • Try everything before you have the students infront preparation in the compter age means testing everything (the cds, internet access, the online activities and the digital projector) before trying anything with the students.
  • If your laboratory has management software learn how to use it.
  • Computer laboratory management software learn make it possible for you to monitor all the computer from one place, do a demonstration on everyone screen at once and take over computer to help students individually.
  • Be familiar with the policies of your school concerning computer use. Are students allowed to access their mail?
  • Can they instant message each other? Are inappropriate websites blocked? What printer can they use? These are just some example of the kinds of things you should research in advance
  • Don’t forget to check the taskbar on student monitors as you wander around he computer laboratory. Student can easily wander off task when using a computer and many of them are expert of hiding what they have be doing. They will quickly minimize the windows they don’t want you to see. Just remember to check the taskbar at the button of their screen.

2.4  Uses of Computer Laboratory.

The use of computer laborites on colleges and campuses by Christina whilakes (2011) contributes that computer laboratories allow students to use valuable educational resources.

Gaining access to resources is one significant advantage of attending college, such resources many include a field                   on which to practice sport science laboratories or even office space. Computer laboratories however, are critical resources that nearly everyone in the student body may utilize at same point during college.

  1. Utilize software: computer laboratories often include software what many students may not have on their personal computer due to cost or accessibility math problem are example. Art and music courses may also make use of software to demonstrate and teach different concepts. Some courses may be on learning how to use specific software program, graphic design student may need to learn Adobe photo shop as a critical.

Component of their educational computer laboratories ensure that all students have access to such programs.

  1. Write Essay.

A core component of college is the requirement to write essays and reports computer laboratories offer students who may not have a computer or necessary programs to write their essays for free students may also use computer laboratories to collaborate with fellow student on essays, as multiple students can gather in the computer laboratories to work at once student can also make last. Minute changes to an essay while on campus, rather than returning to their down or apartment to access their computers

  1. To Do Research

computer laboratories on colleges, campuses offer unrivaled access to research opportunities. Many scholarly websites and journal are only available to college students using computer on the school network.

Additional, computer laboratories are generally equipped with high speed internet access at speed greater than those in many student owns students can thus, research  subjects with greater ease and  access more content higher quality connections.

  1. Print.

Many computer laboratories on college campuses provide student with a certain amount of free or cheap printing for printing essay, project, take home exams or notes. Printing costs are often charged to a students account, rather than paid upfront. This can allow a cash-strapped college student to print school work with ease without worrying about cost right away.

2.5  Computer Laboratory Guidelines

The primary purpose of computer laboratory resources is for academic research, study, and class assignment. Laboratory users have a right to expect a quiet, clean environment that is conductive for learning. These guidelines are intended to outline the responsibility of laboratory use within the campus community.

All activities must adhere to the guideline for network and computer use policies for information technology research.

  1. Use of the laboratory is restricted to the current students and teachers. Laboratory attendants will request for school ID card upon entering each lab.
  2. No food, drinks, pets or bicycles are permitted in the laboratory.
  3. The use of profanity and loud conversation are not permitted in the laboratory, as it is a disturbance to other user. This also includes listening to music with the earphone volume turned too high or students talking on cell phones. Students engaged in loud, descriptive conversation in the laboratories would be asked to learn.
  4. Users are responsible for saving their document on their own flash drives, jump drivers or cd-rom.
  5. When all work stations are in use and students are waiting to use a c computer, the laboratory monitor will ask those using computer for recreation (games, web browsing not related to class instruction e.t.c) to relinquish their seat to those needed to do their academic work.
  6. Downloading or installing programs on the hard drives are strictly prohibited. Each pc has deep freeze installed. Any information saved or installed on the systems hard drive will be removed once the pc is rebooted. Use of laboratory equipment to view or download materials may require the user to demonstrate his/her educational or research purpose for such use.

The lack of computer laboratory also made it difficult to teach computer skills to a whole class.

A space for computer or laboratory sp & m (2005) this brought me back to the question of the important of computer laboratories. If computer skill are to be taught at the secondary level, every school needs a space where a large group possibly a whole class can be taught. But it needn’t be a separate designated lab.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  PRESENTATION AND DATA ANALSIS

4.1  DATA ANALYSIS

       Four null hypothesis were formulated, and data was collected randomly from the selected students and science teachers from the various school in Ojo local Government  area of Lagos state where the study was empirically carried out.

The total numbers of one-hundred questionnaires were administered.

The questionnaires is made up of two sections, A and B. section A comprises of personal information about respondents while section B comprises twenty items based on the four started hypothesis. The frequency of responses on each item was obtained and this  was used to compute.

SECTION A

Table 4.1

 

 

PERSONAL INFORMATION OF RESPONDENTS

Type of school Frequency Percentage
Mixed 5 100
Single 0
Total 5 100

 

Sex Frequency Percentage
Male 59 59
Female 41 41
Total 100 100

 

 

 

Occupation Frequency Percentage
Teacher 20 20
Students 80 80
Total 100 100

 

 

 

 

 

Class Frequency Percentage
J S S 56 56
S S S 44 44
Total 100 100

 

Qualification Frequency Percentage
N C E 5 25
BED 12 60
Other 3 15
Total 20 100
Missing system 80  
Total 100  

 

The result in the first table above showed that all the five selected schools a re mixed schools.

The data in the second table above showed that out of the one-hundred (100) respondents, 59% of them are male while 41% of them are female. This showed that the number of male that responded were more than the number of female.

The third table showed that there 80% of the respondents are students while 20% of them are teachers this showed that the majority of the respondents are students.

The result in the forth table revealed that out of 20 teacher needed in all the school, 5 of them have the qualification of NCE which represent 25%, 60% of them have BED while 15% of them have external qualification the missing system which is 80 are students finally the results in the fifth table showed that 56% of the responded are in JS class while 44% of them are in SSS class

SECTION B

ANALYSIS OF DATA

THE RELATIONASHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS ATTITUDES AND THE USE OF COMPUTER LABORATORY IN LEARNING IN SECONDARY SCHOOL.

In order to test the first hypothesis that says there is no significant relationship between attitudes and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary school the frequency of each response was obtained and this was used to compute the percentage as shown in the table below

Table 4.2

Statements SA % A % D % SD %
A well equipped computer laboratory can motivate and stimulate student interest in learning. 56 56 28 28 9 9 7 7
The method of using computer laboratory brings about effective performance 20 20 48 48 12 12 10 10
Lacks of computer laboratories in secondary schools can affects students performance 32 32 38 38 12 12 18 18
True knowledge in students academic performance in computer science cannot be obtained without adequate and appropriate use of computer laboratory 45 45 25 25 16 16 9 9
Students perform better in the examination when they make use of laboratory than when they don’t 28 28 14 14 53 53 5 5
Total 181 362 153 30.6 102 204 49 9.8

 

The result of this finding showed that 36.2% strongly agree, 30.6 agree. It means that more than the average of the entire respondents experienced positive disposition with most of the items raise to test respondents level of agreement on the positive relationship between students attitudes and the use of computer laboratory in learning. On the other hand, 20.4% of the respondents disagree while 9.8% strongly disagree.

Therefore, it could be inferred that the hypothesis was rejected.

The conclusion drawn from this is that there is significant relationship between the student attitude and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary school

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT AND THE USE OF COMPUTER LABORATORY IN LEARNING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

The test of the second hypothesis which says that there is no significant relationship between students achievement and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary school the data collected was analysed as shown in the table below

T able 4.3

STATEMENTS SA % A % D % SD %
Adequate and appropriate use of computer laboratory will result in good performance of students 31 31 51 51 11 11 7 7
Effective use of computer laboratory enhances effective teaching and learning of computer in secondary school 11 11 64 64 17 17 8 8

 

STATEMENTS SA % A % D % SD %
Financial motivation of computer science teacher enhance teaching and learning, and students academic performance 38 38 16 16 29 29 16 16
The method of using computer laboratory brings about effective performance of the students. 21 21 42 42 21 21 16 16
My school  management gives the students access to computer  laboratory for further personal 40 40 28 28 18 18 14 14
Total 141 28.2 201 40.2 96 19.2 61 12.2

 

The outcome of the above finding showed that 40.2% and 28.2% the entire respondents expressed a positive disposition with most of the items raised to test respondents level of agreement on the positive relationship between students achievement and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary school. On the other hand 19.2% disagree while 12.2% strongly agree.

Therefore it could be inferred that the hypothesis was rejected.

The conclusion drawn from this is that there is a significant relationship between the students’ achievement and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary schools

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AVAILABILITY OF COMPUTER AS MEANS OF INSTRUCTION IN SCHOOLS AND IT USAGE IN LEARNING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

       To test the third hypotheses which says that there is no significant relationship between the availability of computers as means of instruction in schools. The data collected was analyzed as shown in the table below.

Table 4.4

STATEMENTS SA % A % D % SD %
Adequate teaching experience of a computer teacher can affect students academic performance 56 56 28 28 9 9 7 7
With the new educational policy, computer laboratory is important in the school system 17 17 62 62 15 15 6 6
There is excellent performance in computer science as  subject in secondary school certificate examination base on the use of laboratory in my school 21

 

21 56 56 9 9 16 16
Government attitude towards computer science encourage the use of computer laboratory in my school s 26 26 56 56 18 18
Computer laboratory needs to be keeping neat always 28 28 72 72 0 0
Total 122 244 244 48.8 89 17.8 47 9.4

 

The result of this findings showed that 24.4% and 48.8% of the total respondents expressed a posture disposition with most of the items raised to test respondents level of agreement on the positive relationship between the availability of computers as means of instructions in schools and it usage in learning. On the other hand, 17.8% disagree while 9.4% strongly disagree

Therefore it would be inferred that the hypothesis was rejected

The conclusion drawn from this is that, there is a significant relationship between the availability of computers as means of instruction in schools and its usage in learning

THE RELATIONSHP BETWEEN TEACHER’S ATTITUDE AND USE OF COMPUTER LABORATORY IN TEACHING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Table 4.5

To test the forth hypothesis which says “there is no significant relationship between teacher’s attitude and use of computer laboratory in teaching in secondary schools” the data collected was analyzed as showed below

STATEMENTS SA % A % D % SD %
Teachers’ qualification can affect students academic performance 22 22 37 37 21 21 20 20
My school computer laboratory has enough equipments for teaching and learning 35 35 8 8 48 48 9 9
The computer science teacher needs special skill to teach computer students 24 24 39 39 21 21 16 16
Computer science teacher specialty and ability students’ performance positively 28 28 44 44 17 17 11 11
With the use of computer laboratory, there is improvement in teaching and learning 18 81 43 43 0 39 39
Total 127 254 171 342 107 21.4 95 190

 

The outcome of the above findings showed that 25.4% of the respondents strongly agree while 34.2% agree which expressed a positive disposition with most of the items to test respondents’ level of agreement on the positive relationship between teacher’s attitude and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary schools. On the other hand 19.0% strongly agree while 21.4% remained disagree

Therefore, it could be inferred that the hypothesis was rejected

The conclusion drawn from this is that there is a significant relationship between the teacher’s attitude and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary schools.

  • TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis 1 “There is no significant relationship between students’ attitude and the use of computer laboratory for learning in secondary school”

STATEMENTS SA A D SD TOTAL
Students perform better in the examination when they make use of laboratory that when they do not 28 14 53 5 100
A well equipped computer laboratory can stimulate students interest in learning 56 28 9 7 100
Total 84 42 62 12 200

 

 

O E O – E (O – E)2
28 42 – 14 196
14 21 – 7 49
53 31 22 484
5 6 – 1 1
6 42 – 36 1,296
28 21 7 49
9 31 – 22 484
7 6 1 1
  200   2,560

 

From the calculations above, the table value of 7.815 is less than the calculated value of 12.8. Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected therefore there is significant relationship between students attitudes and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary schools

Hypothesis 2. “There is no significant relationship between students” achievement and the use of computer laboratory in learning in secondary schools.

Table 4.7

STATEMENTS SA A D SD TOTAL
Adequate and appropriate use of computer laboratory will result in good performance of students 31 51 11 7 100
Effective use of computer laboratory enhances effective teaching and learning of computer in secondary schools 11 64 17 8 100
Total 42 115 28 15 200

 

 

O E O – E (O – E)2
31 21 10 100
51 21 30 900
11 57.5 – 46.5 2162.25
7 57.5 – 50.5 2250.25
11 14 -3 9
64 14 50 7,500
17 7.5 9.5 90.25
8 7.5 0.5 0.25
  200   8,312

 

From the above analysis above, the table value of 7.815 is less than the calculated value of 41.56. This indicates that the null hypothesis is rejected thus there is significant relationship between students achievement and the use of computer laboratory in learning secondary schools.

  • discussion of findings

It could be observed from the table of analysis that the four hypothesis raised were rejected. This was based on the pattern of responses obtained on each of the items.

Therefore, the research made the following deductions base on the analysis of the data collected on four hypothesis formulated.

Item 1 states that “A well equipped computer laboratory can motivate and stimulate students’ interest in learning”, the result revealed that 28% agree, 56% strongly agree, 7% strongly disagree while 8% was agree. This is an indication that a well equipped computer laboratory can really help in learning.

Item 2 states that “the method of using computer laboratory brings about effective performance”, the result revealed that 48% agree, 20% strongly agree, 12% disagree while 10% strongly disagree

The meaning of this is that many of the respondents confirm that the method of using computer laboratory brings about effective performance

Item 3 states that “Lack of computer laboratories in secondary schools can affect student’s performance. The result revealed that 32% strongly agree, 38% agreed, 12% disagreed while 18% strongly disagreed meaning that lack of computer laboratories in schools can affect students’ performance

Item 4 states that “true knowledge in students academic performance in computer cannot be attained without adequate and appropriate use of computer laboratory. The result showed that 45% strongly agreed. 25% agree, 16% disagreed while 9% strongly disagreed. This means that students understand better when they use laboratory.

Item 5 states that “students perform better in the examination when they make use of laboratory than when they don’t.The result showed that 28% strongly agreed 14% agreed, 53 disagreed and 5 strongly disagree. This means that most schools do not have computer laboratory

Item 6 states that “adequate and appropriate use of computer laboratory will result in good performance of students”. The result showed that 51% agreed, 31% strongly agree, 11% disagreed while 7% strongly agreed. The meaning of this is that adequate and appropriate use of computer laboratory makes students to understand better

Item 7 states that “effective use of computer laboratory enhances effective teaching and learning of computer in secondary schools. The result revealed that 64% agree, 11% strongly agree, 17% disagreed and 8% strongly disagreed.

Meaning that appropriate use of computer laboratory enhances effectives teaching and learning of computer.

Item 8 states that “financial motivation of computer science teacher enhances teaching and learning, and students’ academic performance”. The result revealed that 38% strongly agree, 16% agree, 29% disagreed and 16% strongly disagreed meaning that teachers need to be motivated financially in order to teach very well.

Item 9 states that “the method of using computer laboratory brings that effective performance of the students”. The result revealed that 42% agreed, 21% strongly agree, 21% disagree while 16% strongly disagreed this indicates that students understand something better when they practicalize it.

Item 10 states that “my school management gives the students access to computer laboratory for further personal”. The result revealed that 40% strongly agreed 28% agreed 18% disagreed while 14% strongly disagreed meaning that students are allowed to work for their own personal detains.

Item 12 states that “with the new educational policy, computer laboratory is important in the school system”. The result revealed that 62% agreed, 17% strongly agreed, 15% disagreed and 6% strongly disagreed. This means that computer laboratory is very important with the new educational policy.

Item 13 states that “There is excellent performance in computer science as a subject in secondary school certificate examination base on the use of laboratory in my school. The result revealed that 56% agree, 21%, strongly agreed, 9% disagreed and 16% strongly disagreed.

Item 14 states that “government attitude towards computer science encourage the use of laboratory in my school. The result revealed that 26% agreed 56% disagree and 18% strongly disagreed. This means that government attitude towards computer science does not encourage teachers and students because majority of schools do not have enough materials to get information ion the computer laboratory.

Item 15 states that computer laboratory needs to be keeping neat always. The result revealed that 72% agree, 28% strongly agree 0% disagree and 0% strongly disagreed. This means that people understand the rules and regulations that guide people that are using computer laboratory.

Item 16 states that teacher’s qualification can affect students’ academic performance. The result showed that 22% strongly agreed, 37% agreed, 21% strongly disagreed and 20% disagreed meaning that the knowledge that teacher get more can effect students positively.

Items 17 states that my school computer laboratory has enough equipment for teaching and learning the result revealed that 8%  agreed 35% strongly agreed, 48% disagreed 9% strongly disagreed meaning that most of the school do not have enough equipment in the computer laboratory.

Items 18 states that the computer science teacher needs special skill to teach computer students. The result revealed that 24% strongly agreed, 39% agreed 21% disagreed and 16% strongly disagreed. This implies that computer teacher must use appropriate skill to teach.

Item 19 states that computer science teacher specialty and ability can affect students’ performance positively. The result revealed that 28% strongly agreed, 44% agreed and 39% strongly disagree. This means that teacher should try as much as possible to teach.

Item 20 states that with the use of computer laboratory, there is improvement in teaching and learning. This means that practical helps students to understand something better, so government should provide the necessary equipment in the laboratory, and create more computer laboratories in school where do not have.

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