THE INFLUENCE OF SIMULATION STUDY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

THE INFLUENCE OF SIMULATION STUDY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

In this chapter, the review of related research findings on the influence of simulation study and information technology in enhancing the teaching and learning of computer science in Ikeja Local Education District will be discussed.

 

  • MEANING OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)

Information technology has been variously defined by different scientist and science educators, some definition are examined as follows:

According to Gusen (2002), he sees information technology as the use of microeconomics in creating, storing retrieving, displaying and transmitting information in a variety of forms to solve problems. On the other hands, computer is seen as a problem-able electronic machine that can store, retrieve and process information. Thus, the usages of the two terms (Information technology and computer) are a matter of convenience.

Also Adeyemi (2002), Information technology is seen as a systemized body of tools, techniques and infrastructures for generating, collecting, storing, processing and transmitting data. While Adekoya (2002), opined that the process of disseminating information is referred to as information technology and is based on the use of computer system.

Gaymor and Lan (1999), as quoted by Ekireghwo (2001), take information technology to include the use of three technologies, Computing, Micro electronics and Telecommunications and how these technologies are used to collect, store process and facilitate teaching learning process.

 

2.2       OBJECTIVES OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

The main  objective of information technology for teaching and learning of computer science is to facilitate a faster and better comprehensive and appreciation of the subject matter in such a way as to obtain the maximum possible output from the teaching and learning process.

Information Technology, be it computing, micro electronics or telecommunications is based on the use and  application of computer systems.

Therefore, it is necessary to be computer literate. Thus computer education is a sine qua non both the educators and learners.

 

2.3       THE NATIONAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY POLICY

The national information technology was drafted by a panel of information technology and business experts to institute the mechanisms and basic infrastructure needed to kick-start growth in the Nigeria information technology industry.

 

 

THE VISION OF THE POLICY

  • To make Nigeria the pre-eminent African nation in information technology by ensuring that Nigeria becomes a leading global location for emerging markets information technological investment and outsourced services.
  • To enable the operations of government bureaus and institutions including governments departments, public schools and healthcare facilities, ensuring greater efficiency, transparency and shared knowledge.
  • The mission is to use “Information Technology” for
    • Education
    • Creation of wealth
    • Poverty eradication
    • Job creation
    • Global competitiveness

Musselman, K. J. 2000)

 

 

  • THE CONCEPTS OF SIMULATION STUDY

Simulation study has many types and kinds of simulation. In this research, we limit the study to discrete, scholastic process-oriented simulation. This covers almost all simulation discussed at the winter simulation conference. It excludes Monte Carlo – type simulations in a spread sheet. (Sampling studies, Financial and risk analysis and so on). It also excludes equation-based numerical solvers, for example, differential equation solvers and other equation based models. Although not explicitly discussed. It may include training simulation and man-in-the-loop simulation such as many conducted by the military

However, Carson (1999) and Banks et al (2003), gives a more in-depth look at simulation concepts that “simulation study is an activity or situation that produces conditions which are not real, but have the appearance of being real, used especially for testing something.

 

  • APPLICATIONS OF SIMULATION IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

Kirk (2000), emphasized that “simulation study is a descriptive model of a process or system usually includes parameters that allow the models or study to be configurable, that is to represent a number of somewhat different system or process configurations. Simple example include parameters that allow a user to vary the number of workers at a workstation, the spread of a machine or vehicle, the timing characteristics of a conveyor control system, and so on.

As a descriptive model, one can use a simulation model or study to carry out experiments system alternatives. Evaluation, comparism and analysis are the key reasons for doing simulation prediction of system performance and identification of system problems and their causes are the key results. Hence, simulation study is most useful in the following situations; when:

  1. there is no simple analytic model, spreadsheet model or “back of the envelope” calculation that is sufficiently accurate to analyse the teaching and learning situation.
  2. the real system is regularized: that is it is not chaotic and out of control. In educational sector system software and components can be defined and characterized and their interaction is defied.
  3. the real system has some level of complexity, interactions or interdependence  between various components, or pure size that makes it difficult to grasp in its entirety. In particular, it is difficult or impossible to predict the effect of proposed changes.
  4. you are designing a new system. Considering major changes in physical layout or operating rules in an existing system, or being faced with new and different demand.
  5. you are considering a large investment in a new existing system and it represents a system modification of a type for which you have little or no experience and hence face considerable risk.
  6. you need a tool where all the people involved can agree on a set of assumptions, and then

See (both statically and with animation) the result and effects of those assumptions. That is, the simulation process as well as the simulation model can be used to get all members of a team onto a (more) common understanding, during teaching and learning situation

  1. Simulation with animation as an excellent training and educational device for teachers, supervisors, engineer, e.t.c In fact in systems of large physical scale the simulation study may be the only way in which most participants can visualize how their work contributes to overall system success or problems.

 

  • MERITS AND DEMERITS OF SIMULATION IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

Simulation study allows experimentation with a model of a system. Without a model, you either experiment with a real system (if it exist) – probably causing major disruption – or proceed without such experimentation and analysis – at some potential risk.  Simulation allows the identification of problems, bottlenecks and design shortfalls before building o modifying a system. It allows comparism of many alternative designs and rules of operation. Evaluation  and comparism can take place before committing resources and investment to a project.

Simulation allows study of the dynamic of a system. How it changes overtime and how subsystem and components interact. A simulation model provides about the only method to study new existent complex dynamic systems for which analytic or static (spreadsheet) models provides at best a low fidelity model with correspondingly low accuracy on the other hand, often simulation are time consuming, data may not be available or costly to obtain and the time available before decisions must be made is not sufficient for a reliable study. In some companies an early success with simulation has evolve into simulation becoming a “checklist” item on every project whether it is justified or not for the project at hand. In some situation the animations and other visual displays combined with the time pressure present on all projects, may mislead decision makers into premature conclusions based on insufficient evidence. In addition, inexperienced simulation analyst, or those too focused on the simulation software and technology may add too much detail to a model and spend too much time in model development, resulting in the original goals and project timelines being forgotten. While a promising and interesting technology, is too costly and time consuming for most projects.

A good simulation study provides not only numerical measure of system performance. In sight comes from a tacit understanding of system behaviour, an understanding that can be developed by intelligent use of animation and other visual aids, and an intelligent set of valid experiments together with a good statistical analysis.

However, technology in this respect involves “technology” (including its method, management and  applications) that supports the creation storage, manipulations and communication of information and simulation study. It includes equipments and hi-tech hardware such as computer, CD, DVD – player cell phones satellites etc. The use of information technology and simulation study in instruction is therefore to provide an organized or systematic arrangement of events in teaching and learning of computer science for prompt and effective attainment of specific learning objectives (Law, A.M. and W.D. Kelton 2001).

Virtually all technologies used in simulation study has been linked to teaching and learning of computer science such consideration ranges from sticks, to tablets, to paper and pen, chalkboard to books, pictures, radio and tape to television and films while the range of new information technologies and simulation studies offer by huge resources to instruct via the microchips micro computer, the satellite, tele-matique and the internet services. Some examples  of simulation and information technology in technologies of instruction are highlighted below:

Sight and sound services

Instructional Television

Audio-visual integrated system (AVIS)

Programmed Instruction

Personalized system of Instruction (PSI)

Individual Instruction

Simulation and Gaming

Multi medal system (.e.g sight/sound combination multi image instruction)

Integrated visual system

Computer based instruction (CBI) Interactive video instruction (CMI) Interaction radio (CAI) Instruction

Video conferencing

Audio conferencing

Electronic Board

Internet Based Instruction

Any of these instructional systems for effective teaching and learning of computer science may employ mechanized or electrical means of operation.

Further more Akinola and Fawole (2005) also discussed the impart and effectiveness of information technology and simulation in instruction for teaching and learning of computer science which shows the teacher how to increase learning by designing lessons that use that use technological equipments including computers and other simulation instruments/gadgets.

The major focused or aims of simulation and technological instructions are as follows:

  • To introduce instruments/gadgets and machine which are capable of improving the speed and efficiency of learning, the application of knowledge and capabilities.
  • To make learners active participant in the teaching – learning process.
  • To make teachers active supervisors of oral written practical activities of individual learner
  • To make the teacher administer appropriate assessments, judgment and adjustment skills concurrently during instruction. This is done through appropriate corrections, acknowledgement, reward and reinforcement.
  • To achieve relative ease in the learning process via relatively low input in terms of energy and time but with great attainment and applications.
  • To achieve effective and efficient interaction and interconnectivity among learners and teachers on instructional contents materials and methods.

 

The aims above are anchored through:

  1. Expansion of the possible modalities of learning (redundancy)
  2. Addition of some measure of reality to learning (concreteness)
  3. Increase in the perpetual scope of the learner (immediacy)
  4. Motivation of learning by casting ease, interest and challenges.
  5. Provision of more reflective time for the teacher for improving instruction
  6. Making supports on record keeping and evaluation

 

The introduction and the use of information technologies and simulation in the schools would serve a dual purpose (Nwaboku, 2000): It provides efficient instruction as stated above and also provides acculturation a learner who is being prepared for technologically oriented world needs to be inclined with technology from the early life. Thus, technology as a new world culture needs to be learnt early in life so as to orientate the thoughts and altitudes of learners through technology.

To develop a suitable simulation and technology in instruction for effective teaching and learning of computer science, the following interest  are made primarily:

  • The intellectual level of the learners
  • Production of literate society that can compete with their counterparts in other part of the world.
  • The development of potential in scientific and technological manpower from the use of resources within the immediate environment (Akinola 2002).

 

Information technology and simulation study for teaching and learning of computer science. Therefore requires preparation rehearsals and moderations, which shoots the teacher beyond a mere dispenser of information to manager of instruction.

Okebukola (1997), neuvihep.net.mode3/(2003) highlight some activities in teaching computer science.

  • Via using instructional method, means and materials to plan and present lessons.
  • Obtain and supervise learners oral, written and practical responses during instructions
  • Diagnose learners pre-requisite and need
  • Prescribe relevant sequence of activities

 

Delivery technology simply mans package information and instruction to give students access to educational experiences and improvement in learning capabilities via flexibility and interactivity.

 

  • SIMULATIONS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE.

Simulation study and technological applications in the teaching and learning of computer science shows how to improve by designing and implementing lessons with machines and instruments including computers and other medial so as to make the lesson more concrete and real.

To have an effective learning experience, the instructional experts (the teacher) should set up (prepare) a conducive learning environment.

Instruction takes place in any of the following; classroom, laboratory, playground, etc.

Whenever it is taking place the facilities will have to be prepared some places for information requires comfortable sitting adequate ventilation climate control suitable lighting.

  • UTILISATION OF SIMULATION MODELS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INTO COMPUTER EDUCATION

Newby, Stepich, Celimen and Russell (2002), explains simulation modeling and information technology as a catch phrase for a wide range of sophisticated, electronic equipment and devices used to capture, process, reconstitute store and retrieve information. Information technology is also the use of modern computer system situated in different dispersed geographic locations but linked in a network by satellite, optic fibre or microwaves transmission. The intellectual network of computer (INTERNET) also referred to as the ‘Information super – ghiway ‘ot ‘Cyberspace’, is a vast collection of interconnected computer networks which provides teachers and learning with quick access to current information in audio, graphic, text and a wide array of variously manipulated multimedia form.

Some technology in modern communication include the electronics mail (E-mail), electronic/virtual classroom, teletext, vide text, desktop video conferencing, artificial intelligence, teleconferencing, interactive radio and computer bulletin board. Most of these are computer-based technologies with hardly defined boundaries in meaning. There is need to compliment these with effective and efficient instructional delivery skills and technique simulation study and information technology with its learner, focused, learner friendly, problem solving approach on the teaching and learning of computer in the technology of instruction is best suited to play this complementary role.

 

  • THE FEATURES OF EDUCATION SCHOOLING WITH SIMULATION STUDY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

A feature vision in which teacher and learner embrace and integrate simulation with information technology, then use it to improve both teaching and learning will provide the following outcomes:

  1. a) Multimedia learning resources, available via information networks will proliferate and become a central feature of education. Students will become active learners collaborating with one another and with more experience members of society, to seek out information and gain knowledge. Learning increasingly will take place in authentic contents students will work on real problems, finding their own answers.
  2. b) Teachers role will tend to shift from “sage of the stage” to the “guide on the side”. Instead of conveying information, they will help learners make use of simulation study and information technology tools to find, analyse and synthesize information, to solve problems, to think creativity, and to construct their own understanding.
  3. c) Education will become a lifelong process, important and accessible to all and school will become centers of learning – non just for children, but for all members of the community.
  4. d) The boundaries separating schools will blur or disappear using distance learning technologies, including the internet, students may learn from teachers at other locations and collaborations with students or from members of the community. Communities themselves will change as terminologies enable collaboration over distance.
  5. e) The artificial division of grade levels will disappear. Education will focus increasingly on authentic performance based forms of assessment students will be judged by their ability to find and use information to solve genuine problems.

Conclusively, there is proliferation of technological development in Nigeria. And the main agent is the computer technology.

Therefore, every student is expected to be computer literate and computer dependent. It is pertinent that computer information technology and simulation study is introduce as an important feature of the school curriculum in all Nursery, Primary, Secondary Schools and Tertiary institutions, thereby making it compulsory at all levels.

Teachers and learners should be motivated and awareness should also be created for them to acquire computer education on technology of instruction.

The intensive training of teachers in computer literacy should make efforts and also teachers of visual arts should be given specialist training in computer technology for education.

It is therefore concluded that if the various factors enumerated in this paper are given adequate attention, the influence of simulation study and information technology in the teaching and learning of computer science or education will be effectively guaranteed.

As earlier pointed out, the simulation and information technology in computer education on all areas of human endeavour is phenomenon, but more immense in educational sector because of its dynamic nature and particularly in the process of teaching and learning computer science which tends to facilitate social growth and development.

The utilization of simulation study and information technology makes the art of teaching more creative and dynamic making learning more concrete, real, immediate and permanent. It makes the dual process of teaching and learning more pleasurable without reducing from it level of efficacy and effectiveness. The simulation study and information technology makes access to educate more equal while facilities not easily obtainable can be presented on screen while it is possible for students to learn more in less time. Through simulation study and information technology problems will be more scientific through appropriate use of reinforcement, reward and application of research result in solving problems.

Simulation study and information technology makes it easier for storing information, retrieving and accessing such information through books, radio, television, video tapes, audio tapes, slides, micro-fiche, records and disc.

Finally, it makes it easier to instruct mass number do learners at the same time in different places through such options as closed circuit television or internet facilities (Adeniyi 2003, Educational Journal).

Giving the vital role of the information technology in the society as succinctly put by Onabanjo (2001). The information technology plays the vital role of educating, enlightening, informing and entertaining. This vital role cannot be claimed to be different form the goals and objectives of education. Thus, the information technology as an effective tool of communication in the hand of professional teacher would go a long way in  improving the process of teaching and learning method articulating the system both in terms of instruction and information.

Also the quality of instruction will improve with the quality of those learning would be on the increase. Equally more researches on knowledge acquisition and dissemination will be embarked on while the substance of the curriculum will be positively reform based on the outcome of the researcher. The educational sector, the final benefactor will be the educational sector, the society, and human race as a whole. The enlightened global bias can even be seen in global classification of nations as first world, or developed countries developing and under developing a close examination would reveal that there is no other parameter for judgment other than the level of education, enlightenment and technological growth and development in simulation study (Akinola, 1999).

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  1. INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the strategies and procedures adopted in collecting, gathering of information and data for solving educational problem and to determine the influence of simulation study and information technology in the teaching and learning in some selected secondary schools. The procedure are discussed under the following subsection;

  • Research design
  • Population
  • Sample and sampling technique
  • Instrument for data collection
  • Validity/Reliability of instrument
  • Method of data collection
  • Method of data analysis

3.2       RESEARCH DESIGN

This relates to the general approach adopted in executing the study. It is concerned with how to construct research instrument the method employed in the course of study. Therefore, the research on the influence of simulation study and information technology in teaching and learning is some selected secondary schools descriptive survey type.

 

 

  • POPULATION

The population for this research was made up of all the students and teachers in the Ado-Odo Ota Local Government education area of Ogun State.

 

  • SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The samples for the study collected include twelve (12) teachers of Computer Science sixty (60) Computer Science students selected from four senior secondary schools in Ado-Odo Ota local government area of Ogun State.  Fumec College, Dalemo, Sango Ota, Ogun State

  1. Crystolite College, Ewupe, Sango-Ota, Ogun State.
  2. Noble College Ewupe, Sango-Ota, Ogun State.
  3. Blessing College Ewupe, Sango-Ota, Ogun State.

Meanwhile, samples were selected by simple random sampling technique. This is to reduce sampling error, to minimum and make research independent of human judgment. Three (3) teachers and fifteen (15) students were selected from each of the schools employed for the study.

 

  • INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

To be able to collect as much information from the teachers and students in the above school stated. Information Technology and Simulation study Questionaires (ITSSQ) was designed by the researcher. The questionnaire consists of sections A and B. Section A is meant for the respondents personal data/information while section B comprises of ten questions to be answered by the respondents. They were made to have their choices on two point likert system of either responding to ‘Agreed’ and ‘Disagreed’ to the questions asked based on the hypotheses.

 

 

  • VALIDATION/RELIABILITY OF INSTRUMENT

The questionnaire was presented to my supervisor and some I. T. experts for scrutiny in accordance with their comment on the instruments. The reliability of the instrument was established using test-retest reliability procedure and applying correlation analysis yield a co-efficient of 0.8

 

  • METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

A pre-visit was made to the selected schools, for the co-operation and assistant of the school authority and also to agree on the convenient day and time for the administration of the questionnaire. The research went back to the schools on the fixed data and administer the questionnaire to the teachers and students, after detailed. Explanation on some points or keywords that are ambiguous. All the questionnaires were collected immediately.

 

  • METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and chi-square statistical methods of analysis.

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