THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SANITATION ON SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC SANITATION ON SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH.[A CASE STUDY OF LAGOS STATE MUSHIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA]

Abstract

This research work considers the view held amongst the inhabitants of Mushin Local Government Area, Idi – Araba Community. This study identified the impact made by poor sanitation leading to safety and environmental health challenges in Mushin Local Government Area, resulting in flooding and loss of properties and being prone to infectious diseases. Also, the study encompassed the purpose of the study, which is to identify the impact of public sanitation on the health, safety, and environment of inhabitants of Idi – Araba community, Mushin Lagos, to determine the rate at which people are aware of the risk involved in poor sanitation practices, to know the relevance of public sanitation on health, safety, and environment and to determine if there is any relationship between poor sanitation practices and ill – health. The research adopted a descriptive design; a sample study of four streets of Mushin Local Government Area, Idi – Araba, and a random sampling technique was also adopted. Fifty (50) questionnaires were constructed to elicit responses from the respondents. The data were analyzed with the use of the statistical tool for computation. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of chi-square computer software. From the results, it was observed that 925 of the respondents strongly agreed that public sanitation has an impact on safety and environmental health, and 94% of the respondents also agreed that poor sanitation could lead to ill –health. The recommendations were focused on National Governments, district/Local Governments, Communities and Civil society, Households, International organizations, and individuals making certain contributions to the populace’s well–being. 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                 Page No

Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgment iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi

List of Tables x

List of Abbreviation xi

 

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Background of study 1

1.2 Statement of Problem 5

1.3 Purpose of Study 5

1.4 Research Questions 6

1.5 Research hypotheses 6

1.6 Scope of Study 7

1.7 Significance of Study 7

1.8 Definition of Terms 9

 

Chapter Two: Literature Review

2.0 Introduction 10

2.1 Public sanitation Practices 12

2.2 Practices Aspect of Public Sanitation 13

2.2.1 Personal Sanitation Practices 14

2.2.2 Household Sanitation practices 15

2.2.3 Community Sanitation Practices 15

2.3 Inadequate Sanitation Facilities 15

2.4 Issues surrounding sanitation safety 16

2.5 Links between Water and Sanitation and the Environment 17

2.6 Economic benefits of improved public sanitation 18

2.7 Wider benefits of Sanitation 19

2.8 Health impact of Public Sanitation 20

2.9 Constraints to success in Public sanitation 21

2.10 Strategies to achieve success in sanitation 21

2.11 Global access to improved sanitation 23

2.12 Historical Background of Mushin Area 23

 

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.0 Introduction 25

3.1 Research Design 25

3.2 Population of Study 25

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 25

3.4 Research Instrument 25

3.5 Reliability and Validation of Research Instrument 26

3.6 Data Collection Procedures 26

3.7 Data Analysis and Technique 26

 

 

Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis, Interpretation 

and Finding

4.0 Introduction 27

4.1 Results 27

4.2 Data Analysis 29

4.3 Discussion of Results 43

 

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation

5.0 Introduction 46

5.1 Summary of Findings 46

5.2 Conclusion 46

5.3 Implication of Study 47

5.4 Recommendations 47

5.5 Limitations of Study 49

5.6 Suggestions for further studies 50

References 51

Questionnaire 55

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

TABLE TITLE Page No

4.1.1 Return of Questionnaires 27

4.1.2 Sex 27

4.1.3 Age group 28

4.1.4 Educational Status 28

4.2.1 Public Sanitation has an impact on safety and

environment health 29

4.2.2 People are aware of the risk involved in poor 30

sanitation practices.

4.2.3 Poor Sanitation can lead to ill-health 31

4.2.4 The impact of public sanitation has led to

environmental health challenges 31

4.2.5 Public Sanitation is of high relevance to

individual safety and environment 32

.4.2.6 Crosstab for hypothesis 1; Public sanitation has

significant impact on safety and environment 33

4.2.7 Cross tab for hypothesis 2: People are aware of

the risk involved in poor Sanitation practices 36

* Age Group

4.2.8 Crosstab for hypothesis 3: There is a relationship

between poor sanitation and ill-health 38

4.2.9 Table 4.2.9 Crosstab for Hypothesis 4: 41

There is a significant relevance of public sanitation

on safety and environment of people

Lists of abbreviations

WHO – World Health Organization

UNICEF – United Nations International Children’s Emergency

Fund.

UN – United Nation

UNDP – United Nations Development Programme.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Progress in the exercise of sanitation and hygiene practices has greatly improved health, but many people still have no adequate means of disposing of their waste.

Human well–being requires a healthy environment. Inadequate sanitation practices negatively impact the environment. For low-income families living in congested urban slums and villages such as (Mushin), the lack of any sanitation facility means that waste lies on the streets, clogs the drains, creates an immediate local hazard, and creates optimum conditions for the growth of disease vectors. Water-borne sewage uses scarce freshwater resources and may contaminate surface water when discharged into the environment without adequate treatment, thus endangering downstream users and aquatic resources.

Therefore, this study looks into the impact of Public Sanitation on Safety and Environmental Health.

1.1  Background of the Study

Progress toward a cleaner environment has relied on a philosophy of pollution control; This has sometimes involved costly measures and controversial political decisions. As a result, developing countries, poor communities, and financially constrained enterprises have often argued that the environment is an expensive luxury that diverts resources from more productive uses.

This perspective gives way to a paradigm stating that neglecting the environment can impose economic and even financial costs while many environmental benefits can be achieved at a low cost. (World Bank, 1998).

Ukpong (1991) opined that environmental conditions in many areas threaten to reverse the gains made in public health over the last several decades. Every human should have a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. In a tragically degraded environment, human health is threatened. Most cities of the world are faced with problems of growth. In Nigeria, environmental pollution is a challenge to public health due to urbanization.

Babalola (1993) lamented the declining environmental sanitation in Nigeria and appealed to all Nigerians to be involved in maintaining good sanitation.

The exercise of sanitation and hygiene practices has greatly improved health, but many people still have no adequate means of disposing of their waste. This is a growing nuisance for heavily populated areas carrying the risks of infectious diseases, particularly vulnerable groups such as the young, the elderly, and people suffering from diseases that lower their resistance. The discharge of untreated wastewater excreta into the environment has affected human health in several ways, such as; polluting drinking water and creating sites for flies and insects that spread diseases. Due to this, Mushin Local Government Area inhabitants are exposed to loss of life and property and indiscriminate dumping of refuse (attraction of flies, rodents, and vermin) that helps in the transmission of disease.

The mission of the Public Health Sanitation program is to protect the health and safety of the people. Lack of sanitation is a serious health risk and an affront to human dignity. It affects billions of people worldwide, particularly the poor and the disadvantaged. If the trends continue as currently projected, by 2015, there will be 2.7 billion people without access to basic sanitation.

In the wake of disasters as much as in everyday life, public health interventions that secure adequate sanitation in communities prevent the spread of disease and save lives. They raise the quality of life for many, particularly women and girls who are often in charge of domestic tasks and can face personal risks when relieving themselves in the open.

Sanitation is a human right and a key primary prevention component to ensure better health since its inception, recognizing sanitation as vital to global health. Today, the organization continues to help member states improve sanitation status, respond to sanitation needs during emergencies and increase policies and actions that expand access to this basic service.

Furthermore, the need for better sanitation in the developing world is clear. Forty percent of the world’s population – 2.5 billion people – practice open defecation or lack adequate sanitation facilities, and the consequences can be devastating for humans and the environment. Even in urban areas, where households and communal toilets are more prevalent, 2.1 billion people use toilets connected to septic tanks that are not safely emptied or other systems that discharge raw sewage into open drains or surface waters.

Poor sanitation contributes to 1.5 million child deaths from diarrhea each year. Chronic diarrhea can also hinder child development by impeding the absorption of essential nutrients critical to the mind, body, and immune system development. It can also impede the absorption of life–saving vaccines.

Creating sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone, including poor people, is a major challenge in keeping waste out of the environment. The toilets, sewers, and wastewater treatment systems used in the developed world require vast amounts of land, energy, and water- and they are expensive to build and maintain.

Any investment in better sanitation, including the construction of pit latrines, can help improve public health and quality of life. Better sanitation reduces child diarrhea and improves overall child health. In particular, improved sanitation offers greater dignity, privacy, and personal safety for women and girls. Solving the sanitation challenge in the developing world will require radical innovations that are deployable on a large scale.

1.2  Statement of the problem

The researcher has observed that poor sanitation has led to safety and environmental health challenges in the Mushin Local Government Area. Since the area is known to be a low–land area, the occurrence of flooding, which results from lack of proper drainage and, above all, poor sanitation practice, has exposed the inhabitants of the community to imminent damage, loss of life, and property, indiscriminate dumping of refuse (attraction of flies, rodents, and vermin is that helps in the transmission of diseases such as; cholera, diarrhea, typhoid fever, and dysentery.

 

1.3 Purpose of Study

  1. To identify the impact of public sanitation on the health, safety, and environment of the inhabitants of Idi –Araba community, Mushin Lagos.
  2. To determine the rate at which people are aware of the risk involved in poor sanitation practices.
  3. To know if there is any relationship between poor sanitation practices and ill–health.
  4. To know the relevance of public sanitation on the safety and environment of the people of Mushin Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Does public sanitation have an impact on safety and the environment?
  2. Are people aware of the risk involved in poor sanitation practices?
  3. Is there any relationship between poor sanitation practices and ill–health?
  4. What is the relevance of public sanitation to the safety and environment of the people of Mushin Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. 1. Public Sanitation has a significant impact on safety and the environment
  2. People aware of public sanitation are more likely to practice poor sanitation than people who are not aware of public sanitation.
  3. 3. There is a significant relationship between poor sanitation and ill–health.
  4. There is a significant relevance of public sanitation to the safety and environment of the people of Mushin Local Government Area.

1.6 Scope of Study

The study will give an insight into the impact of public sanitation on safety and the environment in the Idi – Araba community in the Mushin Local Government Area.

1.7 Significance of the study

The research study will be beneficiary to the individual, community members, and society of Mushin Local Government Area Idi – Araba in the following ways;

This study will promote an individual’s knowledge of constantly practicing environmental, personal, and home sanitation and hygiene.

They are also enhancing their health needs, creating awareness of the benefits of accessing good water, and having a clean environment free from communicable diseases such as; cholera, typhoid fever, and diarrhea.

This study will create awareness of the relevance of public sanitation to the community members enabling them to practice public sanitation towards environmental sustainability constantly.

This study will also give society access to holistic health needs and free from diseases.

 

 

1.8 Operational Definition

  1.  Health: This is defined by WHO as the state of complete physical, mental and social well–being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.
  2.  Environment: This is the totality of all that exists in man’s surroundings, including the living and non–living components of the environment.
  3.  Safety: This is the freedom from harm or danger, free from injury or risk.
  4.  Environmental sanitation: This has been defined by WHO as the control of all those factors in man’s physical environment which exercise or may exercise a delirious effect on his physical development, health and survival.
  5.  Practice: This is a customary way of operation or behavior. It is the knowledge of how something is usually done.
  6.  Rodents: These are relatively small gnawing animals having a small pair of constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing—E.g., rats.
  7.  Vermin’s: This is any of various small animals or insects that are pests.
  8.  Pollution: This is an undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances due to human activities.
  9.  Sanitation: This is making something sanitary (free of germs) by sterilizing. It is the state of being clean and conducive to health.
  10.  Congestion is the excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part. It is also the excessive crowding.
  11.  Hazard: This is an unknown and predictable phenomenon that causes an event to result in one way rather than another.
  12.  Clogs: This is to hinder or obstruct with thick or sticky matter; choke up; crowd excessively, e.g., clog of a drain.
  13.  Well–being: This is the state of being happy, healthy, or prosperous.
  14.  Illness: This is an unhealthy condition of the body or mind.
  15.  Transmission: This is the process or means by which one thing or event pass on from one place, person or thing to another.
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