THE EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION AND INCENTIVES ON SPORT DEVELOPMENT OF SOME SPORTS FOOTBALL CLUBS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

THE EFFECTS OF MOTIVATION AND INCENTIVES ON SPORT DEVELOPMENT OF SOME SPORTS FOOTBALL CLUBS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This task was accomplished after consulting collection of magazines, reduce-outs and books. It become located out that no studies had been accomplished or achieved in reference to the consequences of motivation and incentives on sports activities development of a few sports activities club in LagosState as aids in sports, but some articles were written on it.

This research paper will allow us to recognize the volume to which humans trust in motivation and incentives. This overview of literature may be based beneath sub-heading of the fundamental regions of my venture.

Motivation Programmes

According to Knapp [2001] he described motivation in sport as hence, an in depth and sensible exercise plays a primary component in the remaining requirements done with the aid of any man or woman, motivation performs a important part in talent attainment. Effect can frequently triumph over competencies or body. Strong motivation prevents fatigue from affecting consequences.

Unless a person experiences unusual needs or drives, it is probably that he will positioned within the attempt and interest which is required to perform hobby to his maximum potential nor to discover a way to perform any unique ability to high level inside the first area. Responses have to be observed and practiced, therefore motivation influences the extent of ability that is reached and retained. Even with practice under useful conditions and with know-how of consequences, development may be made if the player is involved and does care approximately his outcomes. Unmotivated exercise is quite effective because complicated capabilities are only found out thru excessive stated that of motivation and emphasis ought to be stress on it. The wearing pastime must be enjoyable and this leisure may be accomplished with the aid of fulfillment and reward.

To similarly buttress the above points, motivation programme should be set to clubs in different for better overall performance and should be standardize both in nearby ,a kingdom, worldwide, golf equipment because if there is versions of those motivation and incentives, there can be troubles in forming a higher golf equipment for attainment of achievement. If the club are classified before their standardization the motivation and incentives, there could be no trouble, because the membership contributors will realize this well worth and potentiality.

Motivational programmes should be drawn by way of the Federal, State, neighborhood governments, various establishments and the membership. It ought to healthy each club’s member and according to their level of attainment and potentiality, this can tools up their duty to their golf equipment and ends in development in their performances.

However, inside the phrases of Flashman [2000] observed that topics high in capacity on a complicated co-ordination assignment accelerated their overall performance beneath incentive, conditions drastically flow than did low potential topics, however, we do now not understand if such findings might generalise to situations wherein economic incentives are used or how the effectiveness of incentives varies as a function of other crucial variables which include the varieties of task, the quantity of physical effort demanded.

The effectiveness of incentives plans in wellknown relies upon upon the players information of the relation among overall performance as income. Increased overall performance as relation between appearing preferred behaviours and attainment of the play-incentives must be explicitly certain. To further buttress the concept of motivation programme Whyte [2001] reasoned that maximum incentive ‘applications’ do no longer provide the player with sufficient clues to allow him to discriminate correctly among stimuli-signating the on set of punishing circumstances [lose of co-worker respect] and stimuli-signalling the on set of worthwhile condition [more pay, higher job success].

White [2001] reasoned that cash itself is best one of the many feasible rewards and punishments that invariable accompany any motivative situation.

Gellerman [2002] asserted that money in itself has no intrinsic which means and bought substantial motivating power only when it once in a while symbolize intangible desires, cash acts as image in exclusive methods, for exclusive times. A guy’s response to cash, summarizes his bibliography thus far.

Varoom [2003] said that money acquires violence as a result of it’s perceived instrumentality for obtaining other favored outcomes. In essence it’s also pretty clear that performance isn’t identical to the sum of an individuals potential and motivation, but as an alternative to the product of these variables.

Increasing the inducement of humans excessive in capacity will lead to a extra growth in performance than growing the motivation of individuals low in ability. Similarly, there is more to be received from growing the capability of individual’s who are excessive in motivation than of individuals who are low in motivation.

The extra one rewards and encourage gamers, the tougher they’ll carry out the more the volume to which players wishes are satisfied in their work, the greater the extent to which they may respond.

Concepts of Rewards and Incentives

In the phrases of Animashaun [1999] he asserted that to facilitate sports activities development the President of this united states ought to word the subsequent objects of tips for implementation so one can broaden and enhance sports in Nigeria. A wholesome kingdom is a rich state. He in addition stated that the President make budget available for effective walking of sports activities inside the us of a. Sport have to be taken away from the armpit and umbrella of civil-service because of their redtapism and paperwork.

Many sports suffered of late because of lack of finances. The president through the Minister of Sports must liaise with the sports activities commissioners within the states with a view of locating out their problems, needs and requirements for sports development in all states of the federation. All the sports equipment required for improvement of sports activities must be made available in all states of the federation i.E. Cash, substances, machinery, method and technical understanding need to be provided and plenty of others to mention however few, and he said all this stuff will inspire the player in putting extra efforts toward the achievement of soccer development because Nigerian has attained some appreciable degree of recognition, photograph, standard, repute and achievement in football video games and other arm of sports activities in global and continental cases we should hold it up and maintained. Because it isn’t attending to an enviable top or setting epoch that topics, however maintaining and retaining the peak and trendy that subjects.

It became inside the phrases of Ayeni [2003] he described motivation as an organisms that refers to the ones elements that energize and regulate behaviour directed closer to the success of dreams and the delight of needs so as words, motivation determines and dictates how enthusiastic and devoted it’s miles to accomplish any gaining knowledge of project.

Ikulayo [2002] defines motivation as a psychological concept which has been described as an urge, arousal, force, energises, motivate or that which spurs someone to movement. It is a excellent activator with out it very little gaining knowledge of can take vicinity. Every human movement and behavior has a cause. That is, the cause and want for trying to behave in a specific way, or to gain a particular intention or to attain a certain height.

Since the beginning of organised sports, there has been adjustments as there are developing interests in various sports activities. Sports typically have grow to be increasingly more likened to paintings in which tons emphasis is located on instrumental values, expressive values along with sociability and a laugh have turn out to be subservient to ego needs and instrumental problem. It is surely a feature of the thoughts and the notion and those go a long way to genuine sure have an impact on at the performance of the play, but the strain to win should not be so extraordinary as to have an effect on the performance, as a result the lower may even remove the joy of participation, societies in wellknown apparently play or foster sports activities for so many reasons, for fun and self expression to advantage status and honours to club, network, or country wide delight and electricity and at instances for financial advantage or political acclaim. Morale as a collection feature in a feeling of team spirit inside the group or even with the supporters, shared feelings a not unusual cause.

In sports activities, it grows with humans enduring, combating and struggling collectively for a substantial time period, inside the try to win, have a very good report, uphold the status of the club and acquire in particular notably desirable desires. Within a group there must be friendliness, comradeship and cooperation managing true ability.

Sports Performance and Rewards

People accepts salute of fraternity and heat friendship as a first rate sports man himself for which he’s regarded. That sports activities is unifying factor which has united cities, localities and international locations of the arena; that is why sports activities is speedy turning into or has end up an enterprise and large commercial enterprise in the advanced and growing international.

Furthermore, what guns couldn’t gain at the war area, sports activities have finished within the arena of sports activities, no surprise the considerable degree of popularity, photographs, fashionable, fame and achievement in lots of arm of sports activities and gained both worldwide and continental reputation which we ought to hold up.

For instance, Nigeria is a international football champion thru the shooting of this maiden KODAK FIFA Sponsored World Soccer Cup, under sixteen in China 1985, we won the bronze medal inside the under 20 World Soccer COCA-COLA FIFA Sponsored Competition in Moscow. These are current international fulfillment by way of this top notch usa within the world of soccer and facts are there.

Afro Sport 1982 says that the African Nations Cup now played for what they realize the superior group in Africa recreation. The Federal Government had voted a large sum of money for sports activities particularly on soccer for sports activities improvement, with the desire that Nigeria would possibly attain a brand new height in global sport. This article turned into written during President ShehuShagari regime at the hole rite of the 5th Nigeria National Sports Festival held at Benin.

The mag in addition pointed that the mission cup 1985, the WNDC had been insured through the following N250,000 for their epic in 1971 National Cup Final against Enugu Rangers. That likely gave them the uncommon heart to fight like blazes, which made their keeper to save a tailed penalty kick. The Insurance Cover become the first of its kind in Nigeria soccer. And the club [now IICC] repaid the gesture from UNDC and allied people union promoted by way of the supporting Chief Ganiyu Kola Balogun by using rising the first non-Lagos Club aspect to win the cup that October, 21 years in the past, of route, due to the fact then other membership sides and the national squads were “included” even up to 1,000,000 naira.

Mudasiru [1985] in a speech delivered at the achievement of Lagos State contingent during Kwara ’eighty five Sports Festival stated that because the kingdom got here first within the Sports Festival, destiny reason and he gave them rewards to arouse their hobby in participation whilst next there’s the want for enjoying any game pageant so that they will go with determination and with medals for his or her state. It became additionally said by way of President ShehuShagari in 1980 that the Federal Government had mentioned a huge amount of money for sports activities development throughout the state with the hope that Nigeria may reach a new top in International Sports. The former Governor of Oyo State Chief Bola Ige in 1980 stated amongst other matters that he would spend greater than N2 million on upgrading the Adamasingba Recreation Centre, speakme to newshounds, he stated “I want to assure you that the authorities will do the whole thing possible to encourage sports in particular football. He introduced that children have to be advocated to indulge in more organised game, greater than N500,000 has been spent on sports activities device for colleges on my own in 1981, aside from the huge expenditure thru the State Sports Council, which amounted to several millions of naira.

The touring fee of Nigerian Footballers is about the best in West Africa particularly throughout the Continental Championships, National League season which spreads from February. Today, the residing fashionable of footballers positioned that of graduates to shame. Some senior executives in each the private and public area warfare to hold a vehicle however a few footballers change theirs each year. A standard living room of some of our footballers adorned with heavily upholstered furniture, wall to wall carpet, distinct room divider, whole with coloration tv set, video recorder, stereo and gadgets which are past the goals of some middle magnificence employees. The players either sold some of the gadgets on their oversea playing excursion or acquired them as presents from supporters or admirers, or their clubs or enterprise from the Federal and State government.

Improvement in Reward and Incentives

Nigerian Football could have the unique opportunity of vindicating itself, Nigerians will need to shake off the match of tearstain they have languished. They must sincerely shrug off the self-imposed mantle of shame and gather their strength to mark again in African football. They should regain their self assurance inside the information that they nonetheless restore their dignity and supply them the delivered incentive to head on and hold their keep of the cup and show their fans that they are nevertheless a top country in African soccer.

This brings perhaps the best trouble the us of a is dealing with nowadays. The present device of long camping can’t however retain to wreck our degree of overall performance and the participant’s loyalty to their kingdom. It has also been acknowledged to frustrate and demoralise membership owners who’re devoted to the merchandising and improvement of football. For instance wherein do you assume a player’s loyalty to be when the membership that can pay his income cannot field him for an awful lot of the season. Our gamers have now not derived competitive power or mental longevity from those lengthy tenting. The united states of america is blessed with an array of abilties. The facilities together with gambling fields aren’t well maintained. The practice of giving footballers hard boots to play, affects their performance. The absence of field in the game became accentuated by terrible incentives. The scenario where gamers aren’t given allowances except a fit is won is an inducement to the negation of the spirit of football, the clubs when signing on any player, to agree on such terms as could motivate him and on the identical time, stipulate fines for bad performance. But the emphasis have to be on field that’s an eye word guided with the aid of properly administration and ok rules and guidelines, professional soccer will thrive well in Nigeria.

Sport Vanguard [1999] contended that the NFA might lose on three counts from lack of assist. It cannot stay up for the help of the players because they will clearly gravitate to in which cash is, better standards will be generated by using the calibre of footballers, who could be attracted by means of the big profit which professional football will offer. Those standards can be maintained and advanced upon through players themselves so one can keep their positions and growth their fee. It was similarly stated that incentives is a condition within the external environment defined and managed through an outside agent in order to intensify effort and growth overall performance. Incentives is used as an encouragement for overall performance that is deemed crucial however now not continually intrinsically attractive. The footballers should be rewarded now not most effective on achievements but incentives has now not encouraged impact at the performance of the player. It have to be mentioned that the gadget must offer a reasonable expectation for praise and must reward cognizance and duty in addition to high exceptional of overall performance.

Everybody comprehend that gamers are individuals of the public and entitled to the equal protection given to every person through law enforcement agencies. In their own strange scenario they need a participant’s welfare affiliation to defend their hobby. The association should be able to persuade the diverse membership control to offer residential quarters with, complete security as a few parastatals do for their personnel. Is it no longer a crying disgrace that considering that organised soccer started in Nigeria in 1945, Nigerian Footballers have no longer thought it proper to return together beneath an affiliation to guard their not unusual hobby.

The following gadgets of tips for implementation changed into additionally given in an effort to broaden and improve sports in Nigeria. Funds need to be made for powerful running of sports, on the way to locating out their troubles, wishes and requirements for sports activities improvement.

However, the maximum desired players are pastered with all the goodies of their lifestyles had commenced to apply their dribbling capabilities outdoor the pitch.

Motivation Strategies

Engeazu [2004] committee on incentive and award recognized eleven wonderful sorts of motivation which may be safely employed in Nigeria for newbie sports activities.

They are:-

(a)   Release machine by way of which sportsmen/ladies are allowed of work with the aid of their employers for camping or education without lack of profits or other benefits.

(b)   Retention of ordinary salaries and different benefits in the course of durations spent away at National and International competitions.

(c)   Monetary allowance for sportsmen/women in camp or education.

(d)   Enhanced vitamins in camps or in forums for sportsmen or women.

(e)   Free board and lodging in camp or throughout regularised training.

(f)    Free delivery to and from venues of competition whether national or worldwide.

(g)   Material present in shape of sports activities gadget and literature.

(h)   Exposure of deserving sportsmen/women to the general public via the mass media for boosting, public recognition and acclaim.

(i)    Scholarship programmes at both primary and secondary ranges for the younger and tertiary stage for the academically or vocationally inclined.

(j)    Enhanced activity opportunities via sponsorship by using sports firms.

(ok)   Direct presents of entire sports outfit and in case of pinnacle sportsmen/girls, countrywide outfit should take delivery of as reimbursement for representing the state.

Atkinson [1999] sees fulfillment as a sort of motivation that is broadly studied. Achievement dispositional processes to the primary knowledge of behaviour. The motive to be successful is acclaimed to be a main detriment of strong competitive behaviour toward requirements of excellence. Those high in want to gain display difficulty while doing something properly and tend to be independent and continual, as a result this sort of humans are drawn to aggressive sports.

Litting [2000] discovered out that adult males had been relatively unaffected throughout situations of rewards, punishment, and neutralize, while females of learned trigrams quicker underneath both praise or punishment. The praise situations were nice and useful reactions from the experiments, and punishment become applied through terrible declaration along with “you are a sluggish learner and “My God, you college students are dumb”. Bardwick [1999] keeps that among girls the need to attain is in extricable related with another need-that of association, so that in their case the motive to acquire may be stricken by the expectation of the reaction of substantial other with respect to praise, blame, love, attractiveness, recognition e.T.C.

Motivational Problems

The country handsomely rewarded her athletes who received medals at a first-rate worldwide competition with the aid of the awards of national [Honours, cash, houses and gifts of cars]. The point of reference became the award given to the Green Eagles in 1980 for prevailing the cup of countries championship held in Lagos. Each of the gamers acquired all that had been mentioned. The committee that deliberated at the award cautioned that one of every of the awards need to receive, however due to the fact Nigerian changed into overwhelmed by way of the performance of the gamers and regarded the honor, glory and delight the triumphing of that tumbler added to the u . S ., out of exhilaration, all the four items have been presented to the footballers. The performances of the Senior National crew faded and deteriorated, with no considerable efforts on their component to enhance their performance at International level. This instability of their time out performances induced the Nigerians a whole lot of anxiety and emotional issues. It affected the gamers self pride, image and esteem because of their lack of ability to fulfil the expectancies of the society in which brought about tension and doubt. Some participants of the group who may want to have played for a long term and use their experienced to pull the national group alongside a successful stumble upon misplaced repute because of their deteriorated performances and that they needed to quit to avoid a national shame.

The Golden Eaglets who gained the below 17 Kodak World Cup Competition in China in 1985 had been given scholarships, streets have been named after them and additionally they obtained coins awards. The Head of State received them and they had been given a great reception. The complete usa them and that they were given a first-rate reception. The entire united states of america went to welcome them on the airport. Two years later, majority of the players who won the maiden edition of the below 17 Kodak World Cup in Chile 1987 but regrettably, they could not make a whole lot impact on the International outing.

Ikulayo [2002] continues that when people or teams are not able to win, even if they’ve carried out their exceptional and did better than their previous performances, disappoint continues to be experienced because such attempt is not rewarded because of the society’s notion of their inadequacies.” A sense of failure is experienced and sometimes this is agonizing, because the state of affairs breeds frustration and despair which may also have spill over effects on different sports outside the sports activities settings in particular on social, domestic and educational activities, unusually, personal pride, self esteem and private images are at once concerned and plenty are suffered internally. This could result in an emotional breakdown due to the fact all hopes are completely shattered.

The successful players have their own troubles to take care of. Sometimes the rewards given generated a superb disaffections among the players and officials. Many people have found that a number of the rewards given from time to time get to the needs of the sportsmen/girls as they exhibited a lot delight and conceitedness to their superiors. In some instances, they look down on the coaches particularly because they may be aware that they have more advantageous socio-monetary repute than their coaches. Some of the coached themselves suffer from inferiority complexes which now and again cause negative instruct and athlete relationship.

It has been found that over-dependence on economic rewards and cloth profits are forces of negations that have been generating issues ensuing into terrible psychological results, a few that have been diagnosed. Other elaborate consequences are the ones related to lack of inner justification for participation in sports. The pleasure of participation for self fulfilment and character improvement is misplaced, due to the fact no satisfaction is derived from mere involvement without trying cross win in any respect price. When a game is misplaced nobody wants to identify with the losers. Therefore no one desires to unfastened, yet a splendid offers is completed mentally, socially, and emotionally through participation in recreation whether or not win or lose.

Sports competition has now emerge as externally pace to the extent that the sort of award/praise anticipated with any opposition dictates the quantity of involvement and level of dedication.

Summary

It is evident that Nigerians has been emphasising using motivation and incentives within the acknowledgement of her athletes extremely good overall performance this has no longer yielded the wanted results. The state want to think about the usage of incentives in it’s broader sense.

Essentially, motivation and incentives should be an extended termed, well deliberate and thoroughly carried out. A shift of emphasis have to be made from financial rewards to non-materialistic rewards, and to a mental machine of motivation. Incentive allows our sportsmen and women to obtain steady sports excellence and save you sports drain and mass exodus of athletes to other countries.

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The layout utilized by the researcher to accumulate good enough information for the study was the random sampling technique and questionnaire administration. A private interviews were completed among some players and officers of the diverse clubs. This became completed to make the take a look at greater effective and totally embracing.

Population and Sample

The population of this take a look at involved all of the football clubs in Lagos city. These golf equipment are in quantity. However, five clubs had been randomly used for the study idea voting machine. The names of the golf equipment used had been as follows:

(a)  Stationary Stores Football Club

(b)  African Continental Football Club

(c)  Concord Football Club

(d)  Nigerdock Football Club

(e)  Nigerian Arab Bank Football Club.

In each of the golf equipment, twenty-5 players have been randomly selected as well as 5 officers to make up the respondents.

Instrumentation

The research tool utilized by the researcher turned into the questionnaire which changed into guided and licensed appropriate by way of the researcher’s manager.

The questionnaire became of the likert scale machine which contained twenty brief declaration. Each assertion changed into furnished with the 5 picks from which each respondent became required to make a desire he feels maximum suitable to every announcement. It’s structure protected strongly agreed, undecided, disagreed and strongly disagreed. The areas covered in the questionnaire blanketed the following motivational programmes, ideas of rewards and incentives, recreation performance and reward, development in praise and incentives, and implications to Lagos State Football Clubs.

Method of Data Collection

The body of the statistics collection for this studies was through session with the manager to authorized the tool and interaction with the respondents.

The researcher had in advance sent an introductory letter to the control of the golf equipment used. In order to advantage their co-operation and supply observe to them before handing out the stated questionnaire.

One hundred and fifty questionnaire have been administered by the researcher through personal visits to the clubs to permit the researcher offer answers to any difficulty that arose in the course of the administration of the tool. It took the researcher four weeks to manage the questionnaire. At the cease, a total wide variety of 100 and fifty had been given out and observed useable for information analysis.

Data Analysis

The approach utilized in analysing the records became their conversion to frequency distribution desk and their chances were discovered. A brief analytical dialogue turned into included for every tables. This data helped in generalising the locating from the look at, to test the stated speculation. The private interviews performed were additionally summarised and used within the analysis.

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