This study aimed at assessing the relative effects of the use of CACM and DVI on academic performance of students in Physics in secondary schools in Lagos. In order to accomplish the above, three hypotheses were formulated and the results are presented in this chapter. The chapter is divided into three sections, namely: section one deals with the demographic characteristics of respondents, section two presents the descriptive statistics of the items relating to particular objectives and section three presents the study’s findings according to the hypotheses cited in chapter one.

In the study, a total number of 120 students and 17 teachers were sampled giving a total of 137 questionnaires that were distributed. A total of 78 (65.7%) fully completed questionnaires were returned of which 47 (65.8%) and 10 (64.7%) were filled by students and teachers respectively. This gave a response rate of 65.7% as illustrated in Table 4.1 below:

Table 4.1: Questionnaire Return Rate

Respondent category Instrument Number issued out Number returned Percentage
Students Questionnaire 120 78 65.8%
Teachers Interview guide 17 10 64.7%
Total   137


Information obtained was analyzed in terms of tables of frequencies, percentages and graphs. Responses from interviews and discussions with administrative staff were used to supplement responses from the closed ended questionnaires. The response rate was considered reasonable because at least more than 50% of the targeted respondents participated in the study. The researcher felt that the views expressed in the report is therefore representative of the target population.


4.1.1: Demographic Characteristics

The demographic characteristic illustrates the distribution of respondents categories in relation to Age, Gender, Year of study, Designation and Duration of service as teacher and class as a student. This is as described in Table 4.2, and 4.3:

Table 4.2: Distribution of respondents according to Gender, Age and Year of study (Students)

  Gender Male 114 69.5%
Female 50 30.5%
Total     164 100.0%
  Age 10-12yrs 14 8.5%
  13-15yrs 105 64.0%
  16-18yrs 34 20.7%
  19 above 11 6.7%
Total     164 100%
  Class JSS2 164 100%
Total     164 100%
  School School 1 32 19.5%
  School 2 41 25.0%
  School 3 56 34.1%
  School 4 28 17.1%
  School 5 7 4.3%
Total   164 100%

The findings in Table 4.2 show that most of the respondents (114, 69.5%) were males while only 50 (30.5%) of them were females. This scenario is associated with the fact that, in the area were this study was conducted, female education is still low and this was clearly translating in their enrolment at junior secondary level. This is further supported by the universal basic education (2009) which shows higher enrolment among male than female students in Nigeria public schools.

From Table 4.2, it can also be noted that majority of the respondents (64%) were aged between 13-15yrs. This is associated with the fact that the greater sections of the students population are direct entrants from public primary schools were they likely completed their 6yrs primary education. About 20.7% and 6.7% were aged between 16-18 years and above 19 years respectively. This forms the bulk of students who had late or very late entry into the secondary school and those who are repeaters.

The researcher inquired into the designation and duration of service of the Teachers’ respondents in senior secondary schools. This was intended to ascertain the respondents level of responsibilities and seniority in both the decision making processes and the teaching and learning process. The data is as presented in Table 4.3:

Table 4.3: Distribution of respondents’ according to designation and duration of service (Teacher).

    Count Percentage
Highest Degree Earned NCE 4 18.2%
B.A/B.ED ABOVE 9 81.8%
Total   11 100.0%
Years of teaching experience 1-5 years 1 9.1%
6-10 years 9 81.8%
11 years above 1 9.1%
Total   11 100.0%


The findings from Table 4.3 shows that majority (81.8%) of the teaching staff were had Bachelor’s Degree and above. This partly was due to the fact that the state universal basic education prefers to recruit teachers with a degree. Also those teachers who got recruited with NCE certificate get upgrade through universities part time programs for promotional purpose.  About 18.2% were NCE holders implying they were likely young in terms of qualification and experience. The above is also supported by the duration of service of which the majority (81.8%) of the respondents has spent between 6-10 years of teaching in the school system.

About 9.1% of the respondents have spent 1-5 years and an equally small number of 9.1% have spent more than three years teaching in the schools. The teaching staff are considered central in this study because they are directly involved in the teaching and learning process using Computer Concept Mapping and Digital Video Instruction.

4.2. Section two: Description of respondents’ opinions in relation to the independent variable

In this section, descriptions of respondents’ opinions per the items of the questionnaire relating to the objectives of the study are presented. Respondents were requested to react to the items by ticking (checking) the option that best described their opinions on a Likert scale ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree or available, not sure and fairly available.

4.2.1. Respondents’ opinion on the availability of CACM and DVI resources

Several items in the questionnaire were presented to the respondents to rate their availability and the findings are shown in Table 4.4:

Table 4.4: Distribution of respondents’ by opinion on the awareness, availability and use of CACCM and DVI resources for teaching and learning of Physics.


Computer Not sure 125 71.4%
Fairly used 26 14.9%
used 24 13.7%
Total 175 100%
Internet Not sure 100 57.1%
Fairly used 50 28.6%
used 25 14.3%
Total 175 100%
Tablet Not sure 72 41.1%
Fairly used 69 39.4%
used 34 19.4%
Total 175 100%
Smartphone Not sure 40 22.9%
Fairly used 82 46.9%
used 53 30.3%
Total 175 100%
Others (Television, Projector, Email, Publication Softwares, e.t.c) Not sure 76 46.6%
Fairly used 52 31.9%
used 35 21.5%
Total 163 100%


As seen in Table 4.4, computers in classroom seems to be one of the major concerns in Physics classrooms in junior secondary schools in Lagos. This is depCACMed by majority (71.4%) of respondents who asserted that they were not sure of the presence of PCs in the class room. About 14.9% responded that PCs are fairly used in the class room, while only a small number of respondents (13.7%) consented to the presence of CACM resources in classroom. The above findings suggests that the general presence of computers in Physics classrooms in junior secondary schools in Lagos is still wanting which directly hinders effective use of CACM in the teaching and learning process as students do not have access to new and different types of productive information. Thus, the process of learning in the classroom can become significantly poorer as students do not have access to new and different types of information.

The findings from Table 4.4 also reveal that majority (57.1%) of the respondents were not sure of the use of internet connectivity in the schools. About 28.6% of the respondents stated that internet connectivity is fairly used at the schools. Only a small number 14.3% of respondents cited that internet connection were used. Following a discussion with the administrators, it was revealed that the schools has not had internet connection for a very long time majorly because of financial constraint in regards to internet subscription thus the difficulty for the students and teachers to use the internet to access web based learning resources like online textbook and general information for learning and creation of knowledge.

Table 4.4 also reveal that Tablet as a tool for learning in schools was lacking with a majority (72, 41%) of respondents responding that they are not sure, about 69 (39.4%) consented it was fairly used while a small number (34,19.4%) of respondents said Tablet was used. The researcher’s discussion with the students and teachers exposes that only NPOWER scheme volunteer teachers uses Tablets for pedagogy.

Table 4.4 further show that smartphones were present and used in schools  as supported by a majority (82, 46.9%) of respondents who acknowledged it is fairly used (used only by teachers). About 53 (30.3%) responded that smartphones are available while only 40 (22.9%) respondents were not sure. During the process of data collection, the researcher saw several teachers of Physics and other subjects using the smartphone mainly for personal purpose but not for academic purpose. Students were not allowed to use phones in schools by the authorities.


4.2.1: Respondents’ opinions on adequacy of CACM & DVI resources

One of the major factors affecting integration of CACM in Physics education is the adequacy of the tools. If the available CACM resources are not adequate enough for both the students and teachers, full utilization of these tools may never be realized. In view of this, respondents were requested to rate the adequacy of CACM resources and the findings are presented in Table 4.5:




Table 4.5: Distribution of respondents with their opinions on adequacy of CACM resources

Computers Inadequate 114 65.5%
Fairly adequate 49 28.1%
Adequate   11 6.3%
Total 174 100%
Internet Inadequate 105 60.0%
Fairly adequate 49 28.0%
Adequate   21 12.0%
Total 175 100%
Tablet Inadequate 96 55.5%
Fairly adequate 59 34.1%
Adequate   18 10.4%
Total 173 100%
Smartphone Inadequate 68 38.9%
Fairly adequate 82 46.9%
Adequate   25 14.3%
Total 175 100%
Others (Television, Projector, Email, Publication Softwares, e.t.c) Inadequate 133 76.4%
Fairly adequate 33 19.0%
Adequate   8 4.6%
Total 174 100%

From Table 4.5, one of the major aspects affecting the learning of Physics in secondary schools in Lagos is the inadequacy of computers for pedagogy, which was cited by a majority of respondents (65.5%). This was closely followed by at least 105 (60%) of the respondents who cited inadequacy of internet services in schools. About 49 (28.1%) of the respondents said computers in classroom was fairly adequate and about the same number 49 (28.1%) responded to internet services as fairly adequate.

A small number of respondents (21, 12.0%) said internet service was generally adequate in the schools. This suggests that computers in the classroom were inadequate and in some schools nonexistent and lacking internet connection. With the increasingly growing Physics students’ population in Lagos, the students and the teaching staff all have to use the available computers and internet services in turn which time of use may never be sufficient to carry out constructive academic work like searching for information, online course among others.

From Table 4.5, smartphones for learning purposes was seen as inadequate, supported by a majority of respondents (82, 46.9%) while 68 (38.9%) respondents said smartphones were fairly adequate. This implies that students do not adequately use smartphones for academic purpose, since one smartphones cannot serve the whole class at once.

Table 4.5 further shows that majority (133, 76.4%) of the respondents responded to other CACM tools as being inadequate in Physics classrooms. This is supported by the views of the administrators who concurred that such equipment do not even exist in the schools, which means that they are never used in the schools for the teaching and learning process.

4.2.2. Respondents’ opinions on accessibility of CACM resources

The respondents were asked how often they access CACM resources in various locations in the University and the results are given in Table 4.6:

Table 4.6: Distribution of respondents by opinions on accessibility of CACM resources

Library Never at all 41 23.4%
Not sure 8 4.6%
Some times 107 61.1%
Always 19 10.9%
Total 175 100.0%
Classroom Never at all 75 43.1%
Not sure 3 1.7%
Some times 50 28.7%
Always 46 26.4%
Total 175 100.0%
Computer lab Never at all 10 5.7%
Not sure 9 5.2%
Some times 104 59.8%
Always 51 29.3%
Total 174 100.0%
Resource Centre Never at all 70 40.2%
Not sure 38 21.8%
Some times 54 31.0%
Always 12 6.9%
Total 174 100.0%
Home Never at all 65 37.4%
Not sure 20 11.5%
Some times 67 38.5%
Always 22 12.6%
Total 174 100.0%


Table 4.6 shows that the school library and computer laboratory are the most popular places for students to access CACM for general use notably 29.3% of the students always accessed CACM resources in the computer laboratory and 59.8% of the respondents accepted that sometimes they do access CACM resources in the computer laboratory. This result is echoed by a majority (61.1%) of respondents responding to sometimes accessing CACM from the library. The researcher’s discussion with some respondents revealed that this access was not frequent. Only 5.2% of the respondents were not sure, yet 5.7% responded that they never accessed any kind of CACM resources in the computer laboratory. This suggests that restrCACMed access to CACM facilities in both the Computer laboratory and library tends to deny students exploration of CACM resources for acquisition of information, and knowledge necessary for their academic pursuits.

Results from Table 4.6 indicates that only 26.4% of the respondents claimed to always access CACM resources in the classrooms, about 28.7% responded that sometimes they access CACM resources in the classrooms. A small number (1.7%) of the respondents were unsure of any existence of CACM resources in the classrooms, while majority (43.1%) of the respondents responded that they never access any CACM resources in the classroom. The findings reveal that access to CACM resources in the classrooms is still limited and if the classroom is a typical learning environment, then access to CACM resources should be improved to allow both students and teachers access to and production of, resource materials associated with the processes of learning and teaching.

Responses as to how often students access CACM resources from resources centres were as follows; At least 6.9% of the respondents said that they always access CACM resources from the resource centres. About 31.0% said that sometimes they access CACM resources from the resources centres and 21.8% of the respondents were unsure. Majority of the respondents (40.2%) said that they never accessed any CACM resources from the resource centres. The above response revealed to the researcher that students and teachers were not aware of CACM resource centers meaning that the schools did not have CACM resource centres were students go for research and practice on various CACM application. Even during the data collection process and observation, the researcher did not identify any resource centre in the schools.

Results from Table 4.6 further show that very few students (12.6%) always accessed CACM resources at home. But a good number (38.5%) of them agreed that sometimes they accessed CACM resources at home. Only 11.5% were unsure and quite a number (37.4%) articulated that they never accessed CACM resources at home. The students mentioned that it is very expensive to go to commercial internet kiosk and this cost seems to hinder student’s ready access of CACM resources for communication and learning purposes.

4.2.2. User-ability of CACM resources and students learning

Respondents were requested to rate their knowledge and skills in the various CACM tools. In Table 4.7, their responses are summarized.

Table 4.7: Distribution of respondents by rating of students skills in various CACM tools

Computer Very poor 11 6.3%
Poor 73 41.7%
Fair 42 24.0%
Good 39 22.3%
Very good 10 5.7%
Total 175 100.0%
Internet Very poor 14 8.0%
Poor 28 16.0%
Fair 61 34.9%
Good 59 33.7%
Very good 13 7.4%
Total 175 100.0%
Tablet Very poor 24 13.8%
Poor 18 10.3%
Fair 65 37.4%
Good 41 23.6%
Very good 26 14.9%
Total 174 100.0%
Smartphone Very poor 41 23.6%
Poor 39 22.4%
Fair 52 29.9%
Good 30 17.2%
Very good 12 6.9%
Total 174 100.0%
Others (Television, Projector, Email, Publication Softwares, e.t.c). Very poor 52 30.1%
Poor 59 34.1%
Fair 38 22.0%
Good 15 8.7%
Very good 9 5.2%
Total 173 100.0%


Results from Table 4.7, show that majority of the respondents (73, 41.7%) emphasized that their skills to use computer is poor. In the same vein, 42 (24.0%) respondents claimed that their skills was fair, whereas 39 (22.3%) rated their skills as good. While 5.7% and 6.3% of respondents rated their skills as being very good respectively in using computer. The finding reveals that the student’s capabilities to use computer for academic purpose like assignments and studying is relatively poor which suggest that though CACM can influence learning of Physics, students still use the conventional learning style.

Table 4.7, recorded only 28 (16.0%) respondents who envisaged their skills to use internet as poor together with 59 (33.7%) who rated their skills as good. Majority of the respondents (61, 34.9%) rated their skills of using spreadsheets as fair. While 14 (8.0%) rated their skills as poor and 13 (7.4%) rated as very poor.

The findings obtained from Table 4.7 above, show that only 26 (14.9%) of all the respondents‟ agreed that students skills to tablet in performing learning tasks were very good. A total of 41 (23.6%) respondents agreed that their skills were only good. On the other hand a big number of the respondents totaling to 65 (37.4%) believed that their skills to use tablet in performing learning tasks were fair. About 24 (13.8 %) rated their skills as poor and 18 (10.3%) rated their skills as very poor in using presentation software. The above findings suggest that the students were fairly capable and skilled in using tablet for learning of Physics.

Result from Table 4.7 shows that only 12 (6.9%) respondents rated their skills in smartphone use to be very good. About 30 (17.2%) respondents said that their skills in using smartphone is good while the majority of the respondents (52,29.9%) rated their skills as fair. A total of 39 (22.4%) rated their skills as poor and forty one (23.6%) agreed that their skills in using smartphones is very poor. The above findings reveal that students are not well equipped to use smartphones like Android and Iphone to share learning materials. Besides, discussion with the students also reveals that no smartphone was provided for learning purpose as students were not allowed to use phone

Table 4.7 spells out very few respondents (5.2%) who accepted that they had very good skills of Other CACM resources e.g (Television, Projector, Email, Publication Softwares, e.t.c). Again a small number (15, 8.7%) of respondents accepted their skills to be good. At least 38 (22.0%) of the respondents rated their skills as fair. Majority of respondents (59, 34.1%) accepted that they had poor skills of Other CACM resources e.g (Television, Projector, Email, Publication Softwares, e.t.c). Fifty two (30.1%) of the respondents agreed that their skills were very poor. From the discussions with the administrators, they all agreed that these CACM resources were not in place, this is the reason why such technology was not used in the schools. It called for bigger network band widths which the schools could not afford. Challenges affecting students’ accessibility of CACM resources

The respondents were asked to give their views on the challenges affecting students in accessing CACM resources and their response are illustrated in Figure 2:

Fig 2: Distribution of respondents by their views on the challenges affecting students’ accessibility of CACM resources

From Fig 2, the findings in the open ended question revealed that few CACM resources in schools remains the most serious challenge affecting accessibility of CACM facilities in schools as a majority of respondents (61%) expressed. The respondents stated that students are given limited time for Physics since the computer laboratory are always competed for by students from the different subject. Since most schools do not have efficient computer laboratories, priority is always given to the students of computer science and information Technology. This is further supported by 10% of the respondents who consented that limited access to the computer laboratory remains the biggest challenge of accessing CACM in schools. As a result, students continually have limited access and use computers for their academic purposes.

The results in figure 2, also revealed that financial constraints on the part of the schools as one of the major challenge to accessibility of CACM resources. One respondent exclaimed that “schools limited finances cannot allow it to meet all its demands and computers in the classrooms are secondary”. Sentiments of this nature have made students not to realize the place of CACM in their education. The researchers discussion with the administrators reveals the need for increment in CACM facilitation so as to increase on the number of technology accessories in the schools.

About 7% and 6% of respondent looked at unreliable internet and poor management respectively as challenges affecting accessibility while 3% thinks its power load shedding. The above findings reveal that accessibility of computers still remains a very serious hindrance to the students to engage the various technological tools to improve on their learning. Factors that affect students’ use of CACM tools

The respondents were asked for the factors that affect student’s use of the various CACM tools and their responds are summarized in Table 4.8 :


Table 4.8: Distribution of respondents by opinion on factors affecting student’s use of various CACM resources.

Opinion Frequency Percent
Inadequate power supply 13.00 8
Limited time to access the lab 37.00 22%
Inadequate infrastructure 11.00 7%
Bureaucracy 4.00 2%
Limited CACM facilities 62.00 37%
Inadequate internet services 11.00 7%
Lack of hands on experience 25.00 15%
Mismanagement of lab equipments 2.00 1%

From Table 4.8, responses from the open ended questions revealed that majority (37%) of the respondent’s emphasized limited CACM resources in the schools as the major factor affecting student’s use of CACM tools. Student computer ratios were too high yet many computers were faulty. This view was further supported by 37 (22%) of the respondents who stressed that they have limited time to access the computer laboratory.

From Table 4.8, about 25 (15%) of the respondents indicated that they lack hands on experience and most instruction were theoretical with the students having very little time to practice since the computer laboratory is always competed for. This suggests that the students are not equipped with the practical knowledge and skills that they may so much require learning.

About 13 (8%) respondents raised inadequate power supply, while at least 11 (7%) looked at limited infrastructures with the same number stressing inadequate internet connectivity as the factor affecting students use of CACM resources for Physics.

A smaller number (2%) and (1%) of respondents pointed at bureaucracy and mismanagement of laboratory equipments respectively as factors affecting their use of the CACM tools in schools.


4.2.4. Responses on students’ learning

Respondents were asked to give their judgment on the different tasks and below (Table 4.9) is the summary of their responses.

Table 4.9: Distribution of respondents by opinion on performance of learning tasks and in relation to attitude

Use CACM tools to complete Physics assignments, projects,  e.t.c Strongly disagree 13 7.4%
Disagree 95 54.3%
Don’t know 8 4.6%
Agree 40 22.9%
Strongly agree 19 10.9%
Total 175 100.0%
Own learning of Physics using computers, internet and tablets. Strongly disagree 41 23.4%
Disagree 68 38.9%
Don’t know 7 4.0%
Agree 46 23.6%
Strongly agree 13 7.4%
Total 175 100.0%
CACM improves organizational skills Strongly disagree 9 5.1%
Disagree 12 6.9%
Don’t know 21 12.0%
Agree 91 52.0%
Strongly agree 42 24.0%
Total 175 100.0%
Helps in developing interest in the learning of Physics content Strongly Disagree 7 4.0%
Disagree 20 11.5%
Don’t Know 9 5.2%
Agree 101 58.0%
Strongly Agree 37 21.3%
Total 174 100.0%
Apply what has been learnt to the real world situation Strongly Disagree 6 3.4%
Disagree 16 9.2%
Don’t Know 20 11.5%
Agree 94 54.0%
Strongly Agree 38 21.8%
Total 174 100.0%


Table 4.9 shows that students have a relatively negative attitude towards information technology. The respondents do not usually use CACM tools to complete assignments, projects or reports to which a majority (54.3%) disagreed, while about 40 (22.9%) respondents agreed that they use CACM tools to complete assignments. A total of 19 (10.9%) and about 13 (7.4%) respondents agreed and strongly agreed respectively on their use of computers to complete classwork and assignments. A small number (4.6%) of respondents were not sure. The finding implies that as a result of the difficulty in accessing CACM tools, students were used to the textbook approach.

From Table 4.9, it can be noticed further that, at least 41 (23.4%) respondent strongly disagreed to own learning of Physics using computer and internet. A majority (68, 38.9%) of respondents disagreed to own learning of Physics using computers. About 46 (26.3%) respondents agreed and a small number (13, 7.4%) of respondents strongly agreed to using computers and internet for own learning of Physics.

The above finding suggest that CACM offers tools for thinking more deeply, pursuing curiosity and exploring and expanding intelligence as students build mental models with which they can visualize connections between ideas on any topic. Though the students are willing to use computers as a supplement to other teaching activities they are limited to various challenges. These finding is consistent with Bataineh and Bani Abdul Rahman (2005) who pointed out that computers can be used as a supplement but cannot fully replace the teacher’s job.

Table 4.9 further reveals that majority (52%) of the respondents agreed that CACM improve students organizational skills. About 24% strongly agreed while a small number (12%) disagreed. A total of 5.1% strongly disagreed to IT improving students‟ organization skills. The finding suggest that interactive educational technologies help students to learn to organize complex information, recognize patterns, draw inferences, communicate findings and learn better organizational and problem solving kills.

4.3. Section three: Verification of the Hypotheses

To test the hypothesis, composite indices for the independent and dependent variables were computed by summing up all valid responses intended to obtain respondents opinions per each of the four variables (i.e. use of CACM resources and students’ academic performance in and attitude to Physics). The reason for aggregating these responses was that the method of analysis (i.e. Pearson correlation) necessitated data which is continuous. In verifying the hypotheses, the researcher used a Pearson correlation analysis method to find out whether students’ learning was linearly correlated with each of the three independent variables. Thus, the categorical data was transformed into quantitative forms.

In view of this, Extreme positive responses (i.e. strongly Agree, Very good) were assigned the value of 5 and the extreme negative responses (i.e. Strongly Disagree, very poor) were assigned the value of 1. Composite scores were computed for the independent and the dependent variable for statements of the questionnaire dealing with each of the four independent variables and the dependent variable. Consequently, the analysis entailed the verification of the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.

4.3.1 Test of the first hypothesis:

The first null hypothesis was stated as: “use of CACM resources is not correlated with academic performance of students of Physics in junior secondary schools”. The null hypothesis was tested using a Pearson product moment correlation index to find out whether there is a relationship between the two variables. The result of the finding is presented in table 4.11:

Table 4.11: Correlation between availability of CACM resources and students’ learning

    Students’ academic performance Use of CACM resources
Students’ Academic performance Pearson Correlation 1 .586
  Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
  N 175 175
Use of CACM resources Pearson Correlation .586


  Sig. (2-tailed)


  N 175 175

The results of this analysis show a positive linear relationship between availability of CACM resources and students learning of Physics as given by the positive value of the computed correlation index (.586). The p-value (.000) being less than the level of significance alpha .05 implies that the results were statistically significant. This suggests that availability of CACM resources plays a significantly positive role towards students learning in junior secondary schools hence the null hypothesis that “usage of CACM resources is not correlated with academic performance of students of Physics in junior secondary schools” was rejected and the alternative hypothesis upheld which means that the usage of CACM resources influence academic performance of students of Physics in junior secondary schools


4.3.2 Hypothesis two: The second null hypothesis was stated as: “use of CACM resources is not correlated with students’ attitude to Physics”. A Pearson product correlation coefficient was used to test this hypothesis and the results are summarized in the Table 4.12 below:

     Students Attitude Use of CACM resources
Students Attitude Pearson Correlation 1 .586
  Sig. (2-tailed)   .000
  N 175 175
use of CACM resources Pearson Correlation .586


  Sig. (2-tailed)


  N 175 175


The results of the analysis show a positive correlation (.548) between use of CACM resources and students attitude to Physics. Accordingly, the null hypothesis that “use of CACM resources is not correlated with students learning” was rejected in favour of the alternative hypothesis. The findings suggest that as students’ attitude to Physics improve as a result of the use of CACM resources.


Discussion of the Results

The findings of this study revealed that the use of computer assisted concept mapping learning strategy had a significant effect on students’ achievement in physics. The students taught using computer assisted concept mapping achieved significant better than those taught using lecture method. This result is in agreement with the result of Tan and Seng (2000). They found out that computer assisted concept mapping enhanced students achievement in physics. Tenth grade students in Singapore were treated with computer assisted concept mapping and the students in these group performed significantly better than those without computer assisted concept mapping. This result is also in agreement with Lou, Wen and Tseng (2007), who investigated the effect of integrating concept mapping into computer assisted instruction in physics learning achievement. Their findings revealed that the students in the experimental group who were treated with computer assisted concept mapping achieved significantly better than those in the control group. The trend of higher performance by the treatment (CACM) group could be as a result of self – evaluation and remedial activities provided by (CACM) which helped students to master the physics concepts without much difficulty than the (LM) group. It could also be as a result of;

  1. Excitement over the new approach/handling of personal computers.
  2. Individualized learning by the students and the elimination of teacher bias/strained relationship of teacher and student.





5.1       SUMMARY

The growth and development of most nations are highly dependent on science, technology and mathematics. A number of studies done in Nigeria have reported student’s under-achievement in these subjects. This explains why some science, technology and mathematics education researchers, among others, have in recent times concentrated their research efforts on finding teaching strategies that promotes teaching and learning of science so as to increase achievement and enrolment in science. Consequent upon the foregoing, this study sought to explore the effects of computer assisted concept mapping (CACM) and digital video instructional strategies on student’s academic achievement in physics. The study also examined the influence of gender on student’s achievement in physics. To give a sense of direction to the study, four research questions were asked and five hypotheses were formulated and tested at P  0.05.

The researcher reviewed many related literature. The review showed among other things, that some works were done on CACM on other subjects but none in physics. Also the review showed that works were done on video tape and no work on DVI in physics.

A quasi – experiment, non- randomized and non – equivalent control group design was used. In carrying out the research, the researcher treated all the students in each of the intact classes used for the experiment. One hundred and twenty (120) students from three senior secondary schools sampled, were used as the sample for the study. The students in their intact classes were randomly assigned to the two experimental (CACM), (DVI) and one control (LM) groups, and separately taught by the regular physics teachers who had earlier been trained for the purpose. Identified extraneous variables which could pose potential threat to the validity of the study were controlled. All the groups were pretested before the experiment and post tested after the experiment.

The result from the data analyzed showed that:

  1. The use of CACM as a teaching methods/strategies was a significant factors in students overall achievement.
  2. While CACM and DVI were significant factors in students achievements CACM showed a higher significant factor in student’s achievement.
  3. Gender was a significant factor in the student’s achievement in physics when CACM was used for teaching physics. The male students tend to perform better than their female counterparts in the CACM group as well as the lecture method (CLM) group.

Following the discussion of these findings, the educational implications of those findings were pointed out and it was recommended that both teachers in training and those in the teaching field should be made to understand how to use CACM and DVI techniques. The limitations of the study were also highlighted and suggestions for further areas of research were made. It was also suggested that seminars, workshops and conferences should be organized by educators, Ministries of Education and Professional bodies like science Teachers Association (STAN) and Nigeria Association for Educational Media and Technology (NAEMT) to acquaint and re-orient teachers with skills for CACM and DVI. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that CACM and DVI techniques should be employed in physics teaching as a means of improving the academic achievement of students.


5.2       CONCLUSION

The study had shown that CACM had significant effects on the student’s academic achievement in physics. The CACM appeared to be outstandingly more effective than the traditional lecture method.


The influence of gender on academic achievement in physics was significant. Male students tended to be superior to their female counterpart when CACM is used. A significant effect was indicated in the study when DVI was used for teaching.

The combined effect of CACM, DVI and gender on students’ academic achievement was significant. The male students performed higher than the female students.



Based on the educational implications of the results of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Since the use of CACM in teaching has been found to enhance the quality of achievement in physics, physics teachers should be encouraged to employ it more in the teaching of the subject. By so doing, the achievement of students in the subject could be increased.
  2. Enlightenment campaign, workshops and seminars should be organized for teachers by Education Authorities – Federal and State Ministries of Education, institutes and Colleges of Education to create awareness of the efficacy of the strategies/methods and then sensitize the adoption of the methods/strategies in their various schools.
  3. The Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) should endeavour to connect all secondary schools with electricity.
  4. Governments should endeavour to include all schools in the on-going school – net programme.
  5. Standby generators with adequate storage and security should be installed in all secondary schools in case of power failure.
  6. There should be computer literacy/ basic skills for secondary school students.



The findings of this study had generated some areas for further research.

Against this acknowledge, further research could be undertaken to.

  1. Replicate the present study using a wider geographical area.
  2. Ascertain how ability levels of the students will interact with CACM and DVI to affect student achievement in physics.
  3. Examine the effect of CACM and DVI on student achievement in other units of physics.


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