The purpose of this chapter is to provide theoretical framework to the study of the effect of communication breakdown is classroom management and learning outcome of students. The researcher planned to review relevant literature so as to serve as the bedrock to the present study. Many literatures have been thoroughly reviewed in the library, public lectures, seminars, journals, magazine, daily newspaper, textbooks, articles to mention but few.

In this chapter the following heading will be reviewed.

[i]    Concept clarification! Communication

[ii]   The process and purpose of  communication

[iii]  Forms of types of communication

[iv]  Communication breakdown in schools

[v]   The teacher and classroom management

[vi]  Communication breakdown and learning outcome of students

[vii] Summary of the chapter


       Looking at the concept “Communication” from a universal point of view. It is evidential that communication plays a significant role in the history of humanity. Every individual regardless of where you work at what function you perform spends 5o percent [55%] of their daily life communicating. Many of the authors on this concept have not hitherto arrived at an agreed meaning to it.

Despite this, some communication specialist of America in their study of business communication today said interaction amongst people is an indisputable even that take place on a daily basis.

The stated that interaction is:

“A trust picture of business communication of people trying to present ideas clearly and often persuasively. Individuals, learn that this simple goal requires good judgment, a wide range of communication skills, and the ability to work productively”. It can be deduced that every individual whether engaged in self-employment or under other outside organizations either private or public do communication or transmit message across to other people every organization that is involved in one form of business transaction or the other control devoid the use of communication.

Communication is an essential instruments that the management or administrator and staff could jointly used in achieving the desired set institutional goals. Both staff and the administrator have their separate objectives to attain and therefore to meet these needs both parties have to work in unity for the realization of achievable objectives. They need to communicate on a regular basis so that the aim of achievement is not lost. It is communication that coordinate both administrator and staff’s work and individuals.

Thus, without communication, the real would we today could not have being in existence and goals in modern institution could have been so ambiguous, if communication do not exist.

The success of failure of any school depends heavily on the performance of the institution which indirectly depends ultimately on the trust and confidence which it is able to generate with all levels of its employees though meaningful transmission of messages and instructions.

Anora S.P. [2007] believes that communication involves a systematic and continuing process of telling, listening and understanding. Communication is a bridge of meaning which forms the basis of understanding between the members of organization.

There is hardily anyone [except perhaps the insane] who communicate without a purpose. Generally speaking, the purpose of all communication is to persuade, influence, modify or change the behaviour of others. At the end of any successful communication, the behaviour of both the sending and the receiving organizations or individual are changed or modified in some ways.

In education, communication refers to the information transmitted from teacher to the students from students to the teacher and from student to students or even by audio-visual means. The teaching learning process itself is a process of communication.

Communication is not a linear process; rather it is cyclical in nature, information or message passes from the sender through a medium to the receiver and then back to the sender again in changed or refined form-thus, completing a cycles for instance, when “A” tells “B” that he likes reading novel and “B” replies “so do I” in this example, communication is the repetition of many of such cycles.


Figure 1: The Communication Cycle













       Basically, there are eight [8] elements in the communication process. The process are:

–      SOURCES: All communication require a source the point where the communication process originates. The stage where idea is born or stage at which a move is made to covey message. It occur because the source has some thought, need, idea, or information that the sender wishes to transmit to another person or persons.

–      ENCODE: To transmit mental perceptions. The resource must go though an encoding process in which ideas are translated into a code or set of symbols.

To get the message across, he selects the codes, the symbols and also the form which  he feels would be readily understood by the receiver. The purpose of encoding is to provide a form in which needs, coleas and information can be expressed as a message.

–      MEDIUM: This can be oral or written. It is the form which the sender want to use in composing his message such medium includes, memo, letter, telegram which are written or non-verbal such as the use of gesture.

–      CHANNEL: The channel is the medium use to transmit the message. It is the link that connects the sources and the receiver. in the normal organizational environment. The most commonly used channel are sight and sourol. For example, the channel could take the form of face to face, telephone, written group meetings etc. whatever, channel is used, the sender should be sure that it is the one that can deliver the message properly, appropriately and when needed.

–      DECODER: In the communication process, the receiver must perform the inverse operation of the source to reconstruct the received stimuli and then, to derived meaning. The decoder can be an audience, a congregation, a group of people etc the decoder receives the message and gives a reply or respond in the dictated medium and as appropriate.

       Whether or not the receiver attaches the intend meaning to the message depends  on may factors first,  the source and the receiver must both understand the symbols being used. Further, they must attach similar meaning to the symbols. Whether or not this will occur is in large points contingent on the degree of homogeneity between the sources and the receiver.

–      FEEDBACK: This is very necessary in any communication process particularly in the school system. The message on getting to the decoder, he may have problem in understanding it, if it is not well coded. Feedback is the response by the receiver that enables the source to determine if the message has been received and understood.

Thus, after the receiver has decoded and interpreted a message, it becomes a source.

Feedback is a continuous process because it is a reaction message. It is also an essential part of communication because it shows whether the message has got to the night place or not and how ready the receiver is for the message. It enables the encoder [sender] to adjust his message if necessary i.e. if the original source can conclude the message has been received in correctly, a correction can be made in future communication.

–      NOISE: This is a technical term for all terms for all forms of obstacles and distractions in the process of communication. It reduces the effectiveness of communication. Noise is anything that reduces that accuracy or fidelity of communication. It can occur at any point in the communication process. The source may create noise if inaccurate symbols are selected to represent the idea. The channel may contain static or other noise which prevents the message form getting though accurately.

Noise reduces the amount of information sent between the encoder and the decoder. It could physical e.g. radio and non-physical such as emotion and feelings. In shouts the opportunity for noise and subsequent miscommunication are numerous. Therefore, it is important that we remain aware of these possibilities and take them into account when we attempt to communicate.

Likewise, the process and cyclical aspect of communication need to be understood by all that are involved in school management. It also creates a smooth administrative process for the leadership in the day-to-day running of the organization.











       According to Robbins [1989] say no group can exist without communication….. It is only through transmitting meaning from one person to another that information and ideas can be conveyed. It also is a lifelong process. It is learned and developed through the years, it is dynamic, it is a key ingredient in teaching and learning environment.

The above definition indicate that communication is very important when dealing with other persons whether a predetermined aim is meant or not. It thus influence the general behaviour of a man in whatever one is doing and it affect the performance of people within an organization.

According to Klat etal stipulate the process and purpose of communication as follow.

[1]  Co-ordination: The effort of people working together to achieve the organization objectives are related. Though effective communication workers or staff are kept informed about objectives, progress and problems.

[2]  Problems Solving and Innovation: Innovative solutions to problems are stimulated by communication among members of work group.

[3]  Leading: This is to inform and influence subordinates, peers and superior. To achieve thus, Klat et al suggests that managers [Head teachers] of the school must have good communication skills and they must have good communication skills and they must be able to present situation in a light that motivates subordinates [the teachers].

[4]  Appraising and regulation: Communication help in carrying and the vital task of appraising human performance and regulating the performance of the human resource system. Communication helps relate feedback information to the head teacher and the teachers so that they may take any corrective action required.

Also according to UPE books [2004] it stated other purpose of communication as:

[i]   To inform [information]: Here communication can be seen as passing information to others.

[ii]  Persuade [persuasion] and argue [argument]: The prime goal of communication is persuasion and attempt to sway other, people to the speakers point of view.

[iii] To entertain [entertainment]: The expressions of feelings and situations may have an informative content, but may also be purely entertainment.


       Forms of communication within the school system may either be formal or informal communication.

FORMAL COMMUNICATION: This consists of established procedures, policies and information processing and scheduled reports. It may either be impersonal [written or video taped] or interpersonal] [face to face meetings] for a regular performance appraisal.

It can also be formal when the messages are sent though the channels of communication developed by the management and they follow the lines of authority. Always related to the hierarchical structure of the levels with an organization setup. The different levels include.

Top management level.

Middle-management level

Lower management level, which have one thing or the other to communicate both within the level and or among other levels present in the organization.

Klat et al identify forms of formal communication as follow:

  • Bulletins
  • Employee handbook
  • Orientation programme
  • Policies and procedure manual
  • Television
  • Official reports
  • Regular staff and committee meeting.

The formal forms of communication are of five [5] types each describing the direction of movement

[i]    Vertical communication

[ii]   Cross-wise communication

[iii]  Horizontal communication

[iv]  Upward communication

[i]   Vertical Communication: This is communications between superior and subordinate it may be downward or upward in nature.

[ii]  Cross-wise Communication: This is communication between individuals occupying non-identical position in an organization. It is a system which inter-departmental rather than intra-departmental in nature i.e. communication between superior in one department [H.O.D and teachers] and subordinate in another department and vice-versa. This is to accelerate the pence of information flow.

[iii] Horizontal Communication: Also know as lateral or across the line communication, is the type of communication that goes on between people of the same status and level of authority within the organization hierarchy. Robbins [1998] said “when communication takes place among members of work groups at the same level, among the managers or head of school [principal] at the same level or among any horizontally equivalent personnel, we described it as lateral communication.

This type of communication flow-does not follow the organization hierarchy, but cuts across the chain of command. That is, the flow of communication in this direction is a two-way which flows from superior ot subordinates and vice-versa.

[iv] Downward Communication: Robbins [2000] said that downward communication is the communication that flows from one [top] level of a group or organization to a lower level. This flown from individuals at higher levels of the hierarchy to those at lower levels in organizations.

       When we think of managers communicating with subordinates [the principal with the teachers, the teachers with their student] the downward pattern is the one we usually think of. It is used by group leaders and managers in an organization while in school it is used within the principal and the teachers, while in the classroom it is used within the teachers and their students. [Top and middle management level] to assign goals, provide job instructions, inform underlings of policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention and offer feedback about performance.

Downward communication is important for the following reasons.

[1]   To provide specific tasks directives or job instructions.

[2]   To provide information about the rationale of a job.

[3]   To provide subordinates with performance feedback.

[4]   Cost should be reduced because fewer mistake are made.             

[5]   To provide information about organizational policies procedures and practices [peretomode et al].

[v]  Upward Communication: The introduction and encouragement of the upward flow of communication within organization provides the necessary two way process essential to the attainment of effective communication. Opportunities exist thereby for suggestions, comments and objections from the employees at the bottom of the ladder. The individual employee can now communicate a request or a problem to the immediate superior, if the latter can not responds or make a decision in respect of the request, the message is passed up to the person at the next level.

The upward flow of information within organization is also necessary to co-ordinate activities by the management.

As it was said “the communication that flows from subordinates superior. Upward communication is important for the following reasons.

[1]   It helps managers to keep more in touch with employee attitudes and values.

[2]   It can alert managers to potential problems.

[3]   It can provide managers with workable solutions to problems and also provide managers within information that they need for decision making [Peretomode et al].


Every organization wither educational sector, governmental sector or non-governmental sector has both formal and informal forms of communication “message that do conform with vertical, crosswise, horizontal etc communication is organizations are classified as informal communication.

This consists of non-formalized, written or               inter-personal communication facitated by company philosophy and operating policies [Klatt et al] informal communication is also known as “amebo” grapevine. It is usually created by members of the organizations to fulfill their personal needs, it is a means of disseminating information.

It is the positive counterpart of rumor in an informal communication system. The grapevine has an origin which is well founded, but the person who gives out information or circulation is not easily found nor will any person own up as its origination.

Grapevine spread rumor and gossip and it is very reliable because, although each rumor might have originally contained a grain truth, it will have become distorted or magnified through its passage from one person to another until it is almost unrecognizable.

However, he established the fact that grapevine can never be completely eradicated but the most that can be done is to reduce its influence by making full and correct information available to the right people at the earliest possible time.

For better understanding, to following five points establish spouses of grapevine information.

[1]  New Information: Persons whose job or personal connections give them access to information before it is officially released often share their knowledge with close friends and relations thereby setting off grapevine activity.

[2]  Excitement: The jubilation which usually follows the announcement of events like promotions and new appointments often causes information to leak before it is officially published.

[3]  Loyalty: When friends and colleagues are affected by an decision or policy the first person to have access to the information passes it on to a member of the group and it will begins to circulate unofficially.

[4]  Information Conversation: Situations, which bring people together for informal contact and conversation often provide for circulation of grapevine information.

[5]  Insecurity: Tension-producing situations, such as the threat of large scale retrenchment, tend to set grapevine information system in motion.

Advantages Of Informal Communication

–      It disseminates information faster

–      It helps in the satisfaction of personal needs of workers

–      It helps in filtering of information from manger

Disadvantages of Informal Communication

–      It sometimes difficult to trace who started the rumour.

–      The information is unreliable

–      The originator cannot be hold


       Types of communication can be broadly divided into two which are

Verbal Communication and

Non Verbal Communication

[1]  VERBAL COMMUNICATION: This is implemented in two ways oral and written form: It can verbalized [spoken] recorded or written. Examples are business talk, telephone conversations, interviews, seminars and conference.

In Oral Communication systems, messages are transmitted by sounds, words and sentence using the human speech organs. Oral Communication could be though face-to-face method or though some electronic means.

In written form of verbal communication messages are recorded or printed to transmit ideas from one person or group to another and example are memos, letters, articles, report and questionnaire [Ogunpitan, 1998].

Characteristic of Oral Communication

[i]    Feedback is generated immediately.

[ii]   It is permanent, can be preserved and can be used as a legal tender.

[iii]  It allows for mistakes made to be corrected before it is printed and dispatched.

[2]  NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION: This is sometimes called body language. It is the way we show our feeling through over movements, gestures and postures and the forms or non-verbal communication include, idea, facial expression, eye contact, postures etc.

       We have visual communication, which is used to complement verbal and written. They are non-verbal examples are postures, screens, pictograms.

Facial expression, gestures and micro-expression all communicate to those we are with, gestures include both those that are used to enhance public speaking as a speaking skill and actions used to convey information or instructions.

Non-verbal communication could also include hieroglyphs, art, pictures, pictographs, flags and other visual queues and Morse code.


       Communication is the main form ideas and feelings can be expressed by a certain individual. By communicating with other individuals one can relate to other people and understanding their emotions. Emotions are the main force that drives a person and dictates the way they will handle certain situations.

Communication breakdown in school can be described as the destruction of well coded information either by teacher head teacher and school management. When a well coded communication or information breakdown or not well received by the receiver at the end it leads to communication breakdown in school.

It can also been seen as the communication which automatically breakdown due to one barriers or the other within the school, it could either be from the top level to the lower level or from the lower to the top level of the management of the school or the classrooms.




Over world today is a mixture of different society, different cultures, a blend of different people today vary from the color of their face to their ideas and beliefs.

Out of their ability to coexist, their innate “gift” to excel their thought in various fields, human struggled their way to a brave new century, a new epogue full of promises but full of dangers as well. For every step forward there is a price that needs to be paid, for every “Birth”. There lies the menace of “death”. The higher the price the higher the cost. And in that point today, the question is not how much humanity has achieved but how much have cost out this coexistence whether people have the ability to realize that phenomena such as prejudice and fear can and already do lead to the breakdown of this communication.

Prejudiced exist – It is an undeniable force within or society, so prevalent that is fear is also a factor that roots out of such discriminations and can interfere negatively to the unity of the whole. It is the menacing presence of an unknown, the still darkness fraying on our nerves. It is a feeling of helplessness an expression of guilt, the basis of over moral actions-yet it makes our civilization. It makes some of us successful, other failure in their various endeavours. It makes us hide in ourselves. It makes us lie and deny. Fear makes a society lawful and lawless. Hostilities among various races, ethnicities, lifestyles violent incidents base on fear. Such a fear up brings two options, either aggressiveness or subordination. And when man operates out of fear will surely reach a point of breakdown on every action. Unless feelings and conduct are mutually distributed there is no way that a communication could last.


       There are several barriers that affect the flow of communication in the school especially in the classrooms. These barriers interrupt the flow of communication from the sender [the teacher] to the receiver [the student], thus making communication effective. It is essential for teachers to overcome these barriers.

The main barriers of communication are summarized below.

[1]  INFORMATION OVERLOAD: Teachers are surrounded with a pool of information. It is essential to control this information flow else the information is likely to be misinterpreted or forgotten or overlooked. As a result communication is less effective.

[2]  INATTENTION: At times we just not listen, a but only hear for example a traveler may pay attention to one ‘NO PARKING” sign, but if such a sign is put all over. The city, he no longer listens to it. Thus, repetitive teachers should be ignored for effective communication. Similarly if a teacher is engrossed in his paper work and his student explain his problems the teacher may not get what he is saying and it leads to disappointment of the student.

[3]  TIME PRESSURES: Often in school the targets have to be achieved within a specified time or period. The failure of which has adverse consequences in a hostel to meet deadlines, the formal channels of communication are shortened or messages are partially given. Ie not completely transferred. Thus sufficient time should be given for effective communication to take place in the classroom.

[4]  DISTRACTION/NOISE: Communication is also affected by a lot of noise distractions physical distractions are also there such as, poor coghtning, uncomfortable sitting, unhygienic room also affects communication in a classroom. Similarly used of load speakers interferes with communication.

[5]  EMOTIONS: Emotional state at a particular points of time also affects communication if the receiver feels that communication is angry he interprets that the information being sent is very bad. While he takes it differently if the communication is happy and jovial [in that case the message is interpreted to be good and interesting].

[6]  COMPLEXITY IN ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE: Greater the hierarchy in an organization or school [i.e the more the number of managerial levels] more is the chance of communication getting destroyed. Only the people at the top level can see the overall picture while the people at low levels just have knowledge about their own areas and a little knowledge about other areas.

       This aspect stipulate that there must be adequate complexity between the teachers and their student because the more the teachers knowledge of information is work the more the chance of communication destruction in the school.

[7]  POOR RETENTION: Humans especially the students memory cannot function beyond a limit. One cannot always retain what is being told specially if he is not interested or not attentive. This leads to communication breakdown in the class management.

[8]  CENTRAL AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER [CAPD]: This might be seen as problem of hearing, if a students has this disorder provide had copies of everything you are talking about. If you lecture in your class give students a typed copy of your notes.

[9]  LANGUAGE BARRIERS: Students should be tested in their native language. A school should have a tutor or someone else that is fluent in the students native languages.

[10]       BEHAVIOUR PROBLEMS: The teacher need to build a classroom community from the first day of school. If the students feel comfortable with each other and the teacher there should be a similar chance of having behaviour issues.

[11]       SPEECH IMPEDIMENT: If a student has a speech impediment it is important that the teacher does not draw attention to the student by making him or her read out loud. If there are oral presentations as part of the curriculum, the student should be allowed to do a written presentation. [Donnell James. H. fundamental of management].


       According to Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary described teacher as a person whose job is teaching in a school. Teacher is a person who manage class and classroom performance needs good communication throughout all the line authority available within as well as outside the classroom. For a classroom to effectively determine effective performance standards it needs to evaluate its internal strengths and weakness and weigh then against it external forces of threats and opportunity..

Classroom is a place where children or students where taught to read and write for the battlement of their future and development of the society.

A classroom is a room where teaching or learning activities takes place. Classrooms are fund in educational institutional of all kinds, including public and private schools, corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempt to provide a safe space where learning can take place uninterrupted by other distractions.

Here, are some contents which can described the classroom betters such as

[1]   Typical equipment

[2]   Décor and design

[3]   Types of classrooms

[4]   Challenges to the classroom

[1]  Typical Equipment: An university classroom with permanently-installed desk chairs, green chalkboards and an overhead projector, while a secondary school classroom with permanently installed desk and chairs a blackboard, chalk, a bucket of water [for drinking], a water bowl for the teacher to wash his or her hands after teaching for all these will makes learning takes place effectively.

Most classrooms have a large writing surface where indicator or students can share notes with other members of the class. Traditionally this was in the form of a blackboard but these are becoming less common in well-equipped schools and are replaced by flipcharts, whiteboards and interactive whiteboards. Many classrooms also have TVS, Maps charts, books and LCD projectors for presenting information and images from a computer.

[2]  Décor and Design: The layout design and décor of the classroom has a significant effect upon the quality of education. Attention to the acoustics and colour scheme may reduce distractions and aid concentration. The lighting and furniture likewise influence study and learning.

[3]  Types of Classroom: For lesson that require specific resources or a vocational approach different types of classroom both indoors and outdoors are used. This is know as situated learning classroom can range from school groups of five [5] or six [6] to big classrooms with hundreds of students.

       A large classroom is also called a lecture hall a few examples of classroom are computer labs which are used for IT lesson in school, gymnasiums for sports, and science laboratories such as biology lab, chemistry and physics laboratories, Home-Economics lab, Fine-Applied art lab, Introtech-lab etc.

[4]  Challenges to the Classrooms: Whole the classroom is clearly the dominant selling for learning, the flexibility of classroom instruction is often called into question [by whom] instead of isolating learners in a classroom many teachers who are experimenting with integrating learning into a student’s daily life. New learning technologies and Mobil devices make it possible for learning to take place at any time, any place and at any place that the learner desires.    [Adora S.P. [2000] Office Management and Organization].


       Communication is the main form ideas and feelings can be expressed by a certain individual. By communicating with other individuals one can relate to other people and understanding their emotion. Emotions are the main force that drives a person and dictates the way they will handle certain situations.

Communication breakdown and learning outcome of students can be as the destruction of will coded information either in an organization, schools [private or public] and governments offices. When a well coded communication or information breakdown or not well received by the receiver at the end it leads to communication which automatically breakdown due to one barriers or the other within the organization sector, it could either be form the lower to the top level of the management of the school or the classrooms.

Communication is the main form ideas and feelings can by expressed by a certain individual and learning outcome of students are statements that specify what learners will know or be able to do as a result of learning activities. Learning outcome also involves changes in the processing perceiving of information knowledge is learned and changed in knowledge makes change in behaviour possible. Learning emphasized that students learn many skills and forms of classroom behaviour by observing and imitated others.

A teachers classroom management system communicates information about the teacher’s belief on content and the learning process. It also give instruction that will take place in a particular classroom.

To hinder the breakdown of communication in class management and learning outcome of students, all said above must adequately applied by the class teacher for effective communication to take place and eradicate poor communication and improve on the classroom management.


[1]   Teachers should be trained to understand communication activities.     

[2]   There should be in use of more than one communication channels.

[3]   Building of trust among the member of staff [the teachers].

[4]   The use of face to face communication should be encouraged if necessary or possible.

[5]   Repair all faulty communications system.

[6]   Use clean consist words which will be well understand by the students.

[7]   Encourage the use of feedback in the classroom.

[8]   Remove inter-group hostilities

[9]   Select the proper channels to convey messages i.e. select a well decoded channels that will pass the message across to your students effectively.

[10] When communicating seek not only to be understood but also to understand be a good listener.


       The chapter has critically look into the conceptual clarification of communication, the process and purpose of communication. Communication breakdown in schools, the teacher and classroom management and communication breakdown and learning outcome of students.

Communication play a major role in the school, organization and society. In an organization or institution, communication facilitate the flow of information and understanding between different people and department while the classroom, it facilitate the flow of teaching and learning between the teacher and the learners through different media using all the channels and network.

The flow of information is vital in the classroom for effectiveness and decision making in general.

To achieve the aims and objectives in the classroom there must be effective communication i.e there must be an effective communication between the teacher and the learners to work effectively and to be able to achieved learning outcome.




       This chapter describes the procedure of carrying out the research study. It presents on careful description of the research design, construction of instrument and method of collection of data is well explain in this chapter.

The research methodology shall consists of the following.

–      Research design

–      Population of the study

–      Sample and sampling technique

–      Research Instrument

–      Validity of instrument

–      Method of data analysis



       For the purpose of this study a descriptive survey design was employed to attain the goal of the study which is armed at investigating the effect of communication breakdown in class management and learning outcome.


The population for this research work consists of teachers of all senior secondary schools within Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State where the study is empirically carried out.


In order to determine the population, systematic sampling technique and simple random will be employed for the study.

A systematic sampling technique will be used to draw five senior secondary school in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos state. These schools include Alimosho senior grammar school [Alimosho], state senior high school [Alimosho], Abesan Senior Grammar School [Ipaja], Angelical Comprehensive High School [Ipaja]. While simple random technique will be employed in selecting twenty respondents from each school [Thirty respondents for the teachers and thirty respondents for the  students].

This show the total number of them respondents used for the study to be one hundred [150].


The instrument used for data collection of this study was a questionnaire on the effect of communication breakdown in the classroom management and learning outcome which was classified into one.

The teachers questionnaire on the effect of communication breakdown in class management and learning  outcome which is made up two section which are section A and B, section A sought out demographic information/personal data of the teachers their age, sex, qualification, teaching experience and tribe, section B was designed to obtain the response of the teachers on the effect of communication breakdown in classroom management and learning outcome of students.


The questionnaire was constructed and adopted by the researcher with the help of some experts in the research and experts in the university and college who are versed in this field of study.

The questionnaire was then be given to the supervisor who will make some structural corrections, suggestions and constructive criticisms which were in corporated into the questionnaire in order to ensure that the instrument is validated.


In analyzing the data collected, the chi-square method of data analysis was adopted to this test of the hypotheses and inferences  were based on the results obtained.

The formular for chi-square

X2 = ∑[o-e]2


To calculate critical table chi-square

df = degree of freedom = [R-1] [C-1]

Where:    X2 = Chi-square calculate

= Summation of addition of all

O = Observed value

E = Expected value

R = The number of row

e = The number of cell

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