THE EFFECT OF ACCOUNTABILITY AND PLANNING AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT

THE EFFECT OF ACCOUNTABILITY AND PLANNING AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT IN THE OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the effect of Accountability and planning as an instrument for school development in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. Accountability is a planning process—a process in which those most affected by a plan would be involved in its design and implementation. Therefore, Accountability is embedded in the planning process. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated for this study. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. Five secondary schools were selected as samples, while twenty (20) questionnaires were distributed to the selected schools to make one hundred (100) questionnaires used in the study. The results of the hypotheses were analyzed using the Chi-square analysis method. It was discovered from the findings that the government, teachers, and school administrators do not have proper Accountability and planning for Nigerian public secondary schools. Therefore, recommendations were made that the government should organize orientation for all educational stakeholders (teachers, principals, school administrators, and relevant scholars) to inculcate a mindset on Accountability and planning. 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgment iv

Abstract v

Table of Content vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of Study 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem 4

1.3 Purpose of Study 6

1.4 Research Questions 7

1.5 Research Hypotheses 7

1.6 Significance of Study 8

1.7 Delimitation of Study 8

1.8 Limitation of Study 8

1.9 Definition of Terms 9

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction 10

2.1 Historical Development of Educational

Planning In Nigeria 10

  • Historical Development of Accountability in

Nigeria Educational System 16

  • Concept of Planning 17
  • Concept of Educational Planning 20
  • Types of Educational Planning 21
  • Principle of Educational Planning 21
  • The Component and Problems of Educational

Planning in Nigeria 27

2.8 Concept of Accountability 32

2.8.1 Accountability in Education 35

2.9 Types of Accountability in Education 39

2.10 Relationship between Accountability and Planning 40

2.11 Rationale for Accountability and Planning in Education 41

2.12 Management of School Resources in a Depressed Economy 44

2.13 The Role of Communication in an Effective

Accountability System 46

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODS

  • Introduction 49

3.1 Research Design 49

3.2 Population of Study 50

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 50

3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 51

3.5 Validity of the Instrument 51

3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 51

3.7 Method of Data Collection 52

3.8 Method of Data Analysis 52

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings 53

4.2 Introduction 53

4.3 Discussion of Findings 65

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary 68
  • Conclusion 69
  • Recommendations 70

References 72

Appendix I 76

Appendix II 81

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background of the Study

Education is an instrument for effective national development. Hence, no nation can achieve accelerated growth with an illiterate populace and a dysfunctional educational system.

The educational system encompasses a range of individuals, activities, and materials. It includes the schools, pupils, teachers, the nature of administration, and the control of education.

Accordingly, education has become one of the most expensive ventures globally, and the success or failure of education depends largely on the nation’s economy. (Nguru & Jibo 2009).

Nigeria’s economy has, in a way, experienced a great expansion as a result of the oil boom of the 1970s, which came with its rapid growth and development of virtually all the sectors of the country in which the Nigerian educational system was not an exception. However, in the 1980s, the Nigerian economy encountered some major economic problems following the decline in revenue from petroleum products and a high rate of inflation in the country. This economic crisis negatively affected the educational sector in this area of reduction in the allocation of resources from the government and the inadequate supply of facilities, materials, and equipment. Coomassie, (2009).

In line with the reduction in the allocation of resources from the government, statistics have it that the budget for education by the federal government from 2005-2007 was 6.3%, 7.8%, 8.7% in 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively as against the 26.0percent recommendation given by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin Vol.16 December,(2007).

This trend of limited resources and pressures from population explosion, workforce needs, ecology, haphazard application of scientific development, and the need to advance improvements as rapidly and cheap as possible to benefit the individuals and the nation place demands on educational institutions for a solution, hence, the urgent need for planning and Accountability in the educational industry.

Planning is a management function of anticipating the future and determining the best course of action to achieve an organization’s objectives within a given circumstance and with available human and material resources. Ajongbadi, (2005).

Planning is necessary for administrative decisions in education for it aims at putting into action what educators deem to achieve. Plans are designed to avoid imbalances and enormous wastes and replenish the steadily aggravated shortage of resources ( human and material). Okeke,(1989).

In the view of Dareng (2005), Accountability is the task of establishing goals and looking at the results, hence informing the public about educational goals, results, and cost so that the public has an information base upon which to make accountability judgment as to whether the set goals have been achieved.

Also, Campbell (2003) sees Accountability as basically a planning process. A process in which those most affected by a plan would be involved in its design and implementation. In other words, Accountability is embedded in the planning process.

Accountability and planning are issues to be addressed at all levels of education, from the school board and school system down to the individual classroom teacher. Accountability and planning are valuable tools to launch the educational system to achieve its goals. However, it is highly disheartening to observe that education officials have not fully imbibed effective planning and accountability culture as the system is plagued with several endemic problems, which range from poor statistical and demographical data, underestimated cost, lack of equipment and facilities, dearth of qualified and experienced supervisory and managerial staff, political biases and parochial interest among others. In the same vein, laudable programs such as the Universal Primary Education Scheme introduced in 1955 by chief Obafemi Awolowo collapsed on poor planning, faulty statistics, and inadequate funding. In a bid to eradicate illiteracy in Nigeria, the administration of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo re-introduced the scheme in 1976, which also failed due to some implementation problems. Ismail et al. (2008).

Therefore, in pursuance of the educational goals and for education as an investment to thrive in this period of economic recession, it is necessary to manage the funds and other resources provided for education more prudently. Thus, investigating this study on Accountability and planning as a tool for developing schools in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

  • Statement of the Problem

The push for Accountability and planning in schools within the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State has been given little or no attention. Thus, the educational system has suffered many setbacks due to the disruption of academic calendars due to incessant strike action of the teachers, which is usually instigated by disagreement between the teachers and the government. Besides, the lack of regular electricity supply, standard libraries, and science laboratories has made it difficult for Nigerian teachers’ to embark on research as their counterpart does in the rest of the world. The students bear the aftermath of these problems as many were half-baked students. In contrast, others try to buy their way out through examination malpractices, forgery of results, and in the long run, cannot defend the certificates they bagged from the institution. Little wonder, the degree certificates from Nigerian institutions are viewed with suspicion by oversea institutions and employers of labor abroad due to the high level of corrupt practices that have bedeviled the Nigerian educational system. Back home in Nigeria, graduates of Nigerian institutions are considered unemployable as a result of non-completion of the syllabus; unconducive learning environment accorded to the students, and lack of technological gadget such as computer for practical work; hence, students needs to be re-trained before employers of labor can employ them.

Similarly, Nwadiani (1995) reported that schools in remote areas have dilapidated structures and ill-motivated teachers who cannot perform optimally. Public schools no longer hold attraction for students anymore as students sit on the bare floor during lessons. In some cases, students learn under tree sheds due to an inadequate supply of educational facilities, and where there are available, they are not always in good shape due to neglect.

Furthermore, classrooms are without doors and shutters or louvers on their windows in most schools, and floors are peeled-up or dusty, as is the case in Otto/Awori Grammar School at Ijanikin in Lagos State-Nigeria and other schools. Their list is inexhaustible in this study.

Consequently, it is disheartening that substantial resources from educational institutions are also diverted to other ends. This is in line with the report given by Iwaeni, Akinkuotu & Ladipo (2009) that some of the loans received from the World Bank for educational development during the 1990s were used to purchase unnecessary and expensive equipment that could not be properly installed or maintained and many institutions received irrelevant textbooks and journals, thus, compounding the multitude of problems faced in the Nigeria educational system. These problems and many others necessitated proper planning and Accountability within the system.

  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to:

  • Investigate the effectiveness of Accountability and planning in delivering instruction in the teaching and learning process.
  • Examine the role of Accountability and planning in the achievement of educational goals.
  • Investigate the rationale for the study of Accountability and planning as tools for developing schools in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  • Identify the significance of Accountability and planning on the utilization of educational resources.

 

  • Research Questions
  • Will effective accountability and planning significantly affect the development of schools in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
  • Will effective accountability and planning promote the delivery of instruction in the teaching and learning process?
  • What is the role of Accountability and planning in achieving educational goals?
  • What significance is Accountability and planning in the effective utilization of educational resources?
    • Research Hypotheses
  • There is no significant relationship between Accountability and planning and the development of schools in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  • There is no significant relationship between Accountability and planning and the delivery of instruction in the teaching and learning process.
  • There is no significant relationship between the role of Accountability and planning and the achievement of educational goals.
  • There is no significant relationship between Accountability and planning and the effective utilization of educational resources.
    • Significance of the Study

This study will help school administrators, teachers, and students appreciate the need for effective planning and be accountable to their immediate super-ordinate: school administrators to the ministry of education, teachers to school administrators, and students to teachers to the school to the society.

It is also believed that the findings of this study will add to existing knowledge and provoke further research on Accountability and planning as tools for the development of schools in Nigeria.

  • Delimitation of the Study

The study focuses on Accountability and planning as an instrument for school development in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. However, this study was limited to five selected secondary schools in Ojo.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The researcher limited the study to the scope specified in this study due to time constraints, financial constraints, and inaccessibility to the school administrators and teachers due to their tight schedules.

 

1.9 Definition of Terms

Accountability: This is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products, decisions, and policies, including the administration and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position acquired.

Planning: It is a process of preparing for action before it occurs.

Tool: A device or implement used for a particular task.

School: An educational institution.

Development: To become or make larger, more mature, or more advanced.

Resource Management: The efficient and effective deployment of an organization’s resources.

 

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