EFFECTS OF REINFORCEMENT AND MOTIVATION ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YEWA SOUTH AREA OF OGUN STATE

EFFECTS OF REINFORCEMENT AND MOTIVATION ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YEWA SOUTH AREA OF OGUN STATE

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Concept Of Reinforcement And Motivation

       Rein and motivation stay one of the critical element that might convey out effective teaching. Reinforcements is important in human acquisition of knowledge, attitude, competencies and overall performance of acts. It is a tool by way of which instructors may want to enhance of their coaching getting to know activities. Reinforcement, if properly hired by teachers, may be used in enhancing or shaping the behaviour of college students. According to Charhah (1995) shaping is described  because the really appropriate use of selective reinforcement to deliver sure desirable modifications in behaviour of an organisms. Shaping is based on the principles of successive utility of reinforcement till favored behaviour is finished.

       On the opposite hand, motivation has been defined as a socially discovered pattern involving need, goals, mechanisms and give up end result, Shaffer and Shoben (1982). Any inconvenienced motive a few unbalance in us and so motivates us into trying to pass at a situation of balance. This points to an underlying aspect in motivation, that is the self-actualizing component arising from inconvenience. Motivation is learnable in enterprise schooling. A stimulated learner learns better than the unmotivated one. Oladele (1994) assert4ed that the purpose and relevance of the mastering task have to be clean to the scholars in enterprise schooling. This will function motivation to the learner. Motivation need to no longer be too severe in any other case it’s going to loose its learning merits. Pain, fear, tension, via motivation should be prevented in school due to the fact they produce annoying and unsightly emotional nation which isn’t conducive to getting to know. The utility of reinforcement and motivation in commercial enterprise studies is needed as it will result in boom and progress to powerful coaching.

Types of Reinforcement and Motivation

       Oladele (1994) write that reinforcement will be visible as an event following a response which usually increases or every so often decreases the opportunity that the response might be repeated or refrained from whilst the organisms finds himself inside the same scenario once more. The operation of the usage of reward to reinforce or weaken a specific behaviour in an organism is known as reinforcement. Two types of reinforcement can be recognized in operant conditioning. These consist of superb and negative reinforcement.

Positive Reinforcement

       This is any stimulus which an person will strike to gain, together with meals, money, water and so on. A advantageous reinforcement the function of maintaining of strengthening the reaction. With animals, meals and water serve as reinforcers, the superb reinforcement is split into , the primary and secondary reinforcement.

Primary Positive Reinforcement

       These are based on drives which can be vital for the survival of an organism and those consist of meals, water, shelter and so forth.

Secondary Positive Reinforcement

       These are rewards which are not essential for the survival or bodily development of an organisms.

       Adesemowo (1998) mentioned that secondary nice reinforcement aren’t leads to themselves but approach to an give up. They consist of socially derived values together with money, prestige and reward. This type of reinforcement have extra price while they may be praised with different reinforces. For example, the realization that if one has money, he could purchase meals that is critical for the survival of person has a tendency to make man work for plenty. Okubanjo (1997).

Negative Reinforcement

       These are unpleasant stimuli that a learner or an organisms will want to terminate given the possibility to do so. Negative reinforces are stimuli which strengthen a reaction to be discovered serves to terminate the aversive situation.

Mechanizes of Motivation in Business Education

       Motivation is a procedure by way of which the newbies inner energies are directed in the direction of a diverse dreams, object in his environment. According to “Lovell” (1991), motivation is the pressure, power or degree of interest an individuals displays. This pre-think motivation is instinct and normally manifested by means of an character. It is likewise a psychological or internal manner initiated through some want or drive which results in activity which happy that want.

       A want is the dearth of something that if offers would similarly the welfare of an organism. For motivation to fulfill want, it may either be cognitive or emotional, aware or subconscious. Motivation can be expressed at once or in a roundabout way. Since mastering lead to trade in behaviour, then there’s courting between gaining knowledge of and motivation. In order to boom study room motivation, attention must be attracted to rookies’ interest on the mastering final results, teachers must capitalize on the child’s interest, wishes and interest, making considerable use of incentives designed to intensity learning activity. Positive incentives encompass the promise of prize privilege praises or excessive marks. Examples of bad incentives encompass threats, demand that suggest threats and the promise of low marks. Both may be used, but studying proceeds better beneath the have an impact on of advantageous in place of bad incentives. Also, reward or incentives may be concrete or symbolic like a cup or trophy for prevailing a opposition, e.G. Football healthy, to keep performance at a high stage.

       Adesemowo (2000) mentioned that motivation has unlimited nature. However, an individual by no means ceases to be worried inside the motivation in business education cycles because the cease of one spherical of motivation is usually the beginning of another. Motivation in enterprise training cycles take off whilst an opening is created inside the people life marking the start of acute deficiency. Need is then created for higher performance, for a exchange in one’s lifestyles sample. Although, the gap at the “deficiency spot” by no means closes up. So faster had the person finishes one cycle of motivation in commercial enterprise education then the begins every other one. One completing one spherical of motivation, receives spurred to higher heights.

Theories of Motivation In Business Education

       Some theories of motivation which can be applicable to the study are mentioned underneath:

1.   Instinct principle of motivation in enterprise education:” The leader proponents of this principle are Fraud William James and Williams Mc Douglas. They all pointed out that inborn and unlearned reaction tendencies decide the behaviour of an organisms Mc. Douglas, the primary exponent of the doctrine of intuition which was alter multiplied to eighteen e.G. Self-assertion, gregariousness mating acquisitiveness, critics, all human behaviour as motivated with the aid of instincts. Thus, the theory became rejected Kuo and Dunlop due to the fact each idea evolved his own listing on my own. Eight hundred and 40-9 instincts have been proposed by using 1924 to explain human behaviour. The critics additionally talked about that adult behaviour is usually affected by mastering experiences and that those aren’t inmate.

2.    The cognitive principle of motivation in business schooling: This laid emphasis at the position of human will of power in human reason and behaviour. The theory become famous with St. Thomas Aquinas, Plato and Aristotle. Even later, philosophers capitalized at the effect of strength in explaining human behaviour, but present day psychologist sees the cognitive theoretical stands in will energy as essential in expertise human decision, but it does now not truly give an explanation for the reason of pressure at the back of the exclusive types of human behaviour.

three.    The want principle of motivation in enterprise training:  The greatest proponent of the want via motivation is business schooling became Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970) a professor of psychology.

       Maslow recognized five fundamental companies of human needs that strength in a particular sample this is hierarchy of significance. In this scheme, one want is glad than the opposite.

       The hierarchy is as follows:

a.    Physiological needs

b.    Safety desires

c.     Belongingness or love desires

d.    The esteem wishes

e.    Self actualization wishes

       The hierarchy structure of needs is represented diagrammatically as:

Self actualization

Self – esteem

Belongingness

Safety needs

Physiological need

a.    Physiological desires: According to Maslow, whilst these      physiological desires are deprived for an extended period, all other        wishes fail to seem. They include food, water, sex, refuge, etc.

b.    Safety want: When the physiological desires are correctly fulfilled, then safety needs turns into the dominant force in the    persona of an people.

              They include threat and deprivation, protection towards  hazard, and so forth.

c.     Belongingness and love need: They also are referred to as social  desires which include affection, affiliation, friendship and love.

d.    Self esteem needs: These desires focus on self appreciate, self regard, in addition to appreciate from different reputation, fame, etc. All        those wishes are stable in the delight of decrease desires.

e.    Self actualization: This is the highest need within the hierarchy of     want. Unlike the alternative wishes, self actualization is manifested    differently in distinctive humans as an instance, song ought to create,       an artist should paint.

Application of motivation to school room state of affairs in commercial enterprise education

1.    Motivation in commercial enterprise education ought to now not be too severe or        else it’s going to loose its gaining knowledge of deserves.

2.    Intrinsic as an alternative that extrinsic motivation is usually better. School      subjects need to be arranged in a way that they may hobby the   college students and the application may be clean

three.    Reward and successes instead of failure should always be   highlighted to encourage the learner.

4.    Teachers must constantly keep away from blame, ridicule, and corporal    punishment due to the fact these have bad getting to know impact.

five.    Effort need to be made to inspire our human beings or students      because of stimulated learner is higher than the unmotivated   ones.

WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Welcome, My name is Ola and I am online and ready to assist you, let me know if you need assistance.
👋 Hi, how can I help?