A STUDY OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.

A STUDY OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OJO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF LAGOS STATE.

ABSTRACT

Apart from the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health is the ability of people to reproduce to regulate their fertility and practice and enjoy sexual relationships. However, the reproductive health of the adolescent is important to the overall healthy quality of any community as their relatively high involvement in sexual activities leads to reproductive health problems – sexually transmitted infections, STI, and RII. This study was carried out to find out the reproductive health problem of female adolescents in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos, Nigeria. 200 female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools were sampled using a simple random technique. A descriptive survey design was adopted for this study, and a self-structured questionnaire was used to solicit information on demographic health problems. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages, and the inferential statistics of chi-square were used to test the hypotheses at an alpha level of 0.05. The result obtained showed that 45% of the female adolescents were between 15 – 17 years and 42 – 5% were in the SS 2 class. Peer pressure, media influence, early initiation into a sexual act, lack of knowledge on sexual and reproductive issues and lack of parental care had significant effects on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected seniors secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. A combined effect of the above variables on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State. Therefore, the problems mentioned above reproductive health problems are the key significant factors responsible for reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State; as such further research should be carried out to investigate the problems of reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State so that the fight programs and policy can be planned and implemented in order to combat these problems facing adolescents reproductive health.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

       PAGES 

Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Abstract v

Table of Content vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem 6

1.3 Significance of Study 6

1.4 Limitation of Study 7

1.5 Research Questions 7

1.6 Research Hypothesis 9

1.7 Delimitation of Study 10

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 11

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Concept of Reproductive Health 12

2.2 The Concept and the Nature of

the Period of Adolescents 15

2.3 The Reproductive Health Problems

of Female Adolescents 19

2.4 Adolescents’ Reproductive Health

Programs and Education 45

2.5 Appraisal of Literature 50

 

CHAPTER THREE

INTRODUCTION

3.0 Research Methodology 52

3.1 Research Design 53

3.2 Population of Study 54

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 54

3.4 Research Instrument 54

3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument two Section 55

3.6 Pre-Testing of Research Instrument 56

3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 56

3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis 57

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Result 58

4.2 Hypothesis 1 61

4.3 Discussion of Findings 71

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary 74
  • Conclusion 76

5.3 Recommendation 77

References 78

Appendix 82

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

In the constitution of the World Health Organization (W.H.O), 1975, Health is defined as a state of complete well-being and not merely in the absence of disease or infirmity. This definition, Idealistic as it may look, is nowhere as relevant and applicable as in reproductive health. A woman in the distress of carrying an unwanted pregnancy cannot be considered healthy because her blood pressure is not elevated, and the fetus shows a normal biophysical profile. In this positive definition, the reproductive process is accomplished in a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or disorders of the reproductive process.

Familusi and Alade (2000) asserted that reproduction health aims to enhance life and personal relations and not merely counselling and care related to reproductive and sexual infections. Reproductive healthy implies that apart from the absence of disease or infirmity, people can reproduce, regulate their fertility, and practice and enjoy sexual relationships. It further implies that reproduction is carried to a successful outcome through infant and child survival, growth and healthy development.

It finally implies that women can go safely through pregnancy and childbirth, that fertility regulation can be achieved without health hazards and that people are safe in having sex. (Fathala, 1988).

Reproductive health problems are those sexually issues that occur especially among adolescents due to many factors or reasons that are not well handled in their environment.

According to Ishola, Adedimeji and Adedokun (2002) and Dadepo (1999), some of these reproductive health problems among Nigerian adolescents, as identified by an expert, are high rate of maternal mortality, unsafe abortion, Reproductive Tracts Infection (RTI)), entopic infertility pregnancy, unwanted recurrent spontaneous abortion, cervical cancer, genital fistulae prenatal mortality, menstrual and sexual abnormality and high fertility.

WHO (1975) defined adolescents as progress from the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics (puberty) to sexual and reproductive maturity, development of an adult mental process, adult identity and transition from total socio-economic dependence to relative independence. The only universal definition of adolescents like biological development, emotional maturity and cognitive development vary greatly among young people of the same age. Ariba (2000) noted that changes occurring during adolescence are natural and primarily intended to help the child cope with sex, reproduction, and social life. The rapid spirit of growth and body changes taking place in the adolescent and some other factors from their environment make them vulnerable to these reproductive problems (Odetola, 2004). Adolescents may vary according to cultural, environmental and socioeconomic status; therefore, their social and reproductive health needs vary worldwide. Therefore, as they mature and become sexually active, more young people fall at serious health risks; most face them with too little fractural information, little guidance about sexual responsibility, and little access to health care. Despite the adolescents’ urgent needs, program effort has been sighted and shown by controversy (Adapted from population report 1995).

Some of these adolescents’ reproductive health issues, which are vital to health reproductive have been identified by Familusi and Alade (2000). These include adjusting to body changes and managing emotion, deciding where, how and when or not to have sex, preventing harmful sexual practices and reducing sexual high-risk behaviours. Other issues include choosing the right kind of traditional practices and values, avoiding unwanted pregnancies and abortion, accessibility to reproductive health and contraceptive information, courtship marriage and responsible parenthood, and preventing sexually transmitted inflexions.

However, while some of these problems have their causes in psychological and social needs, the needs related to the relationship between genders, sex, sexuality, and reproductive health problems of adolescents and young people, if addressed properly, will go a long way in ameliorating the problem faced by the adolescents in this adolescents in this aspects. The association for reproductive and family health (ARFH) conducted a baseline in the target communities within Lagos to document the young persons’ specific needs and develop a profile. Research questionnaire focus group discussion and in-depth interviews of adolescents, their teachers, parents and guardians sought to know their perception of the nature and scope of adolescents’ health problems and ways of achieving them.

In its nature and as stated, this study seeks to study the reproductive health problems of female adolescents in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State to help tackle this problem properly. There are twenty-three public senior secondary schools in this area; adolescents in this area have been observed to have some of these reproductive health problems, which are detrimental to their health.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Reproductive health of the adolescent is important to the overall health quality of any community. Findings from studies, including those of MAKINWA (1993) and FREEDMAN (2000), have shown a high level of sexual activities among Nigerian adolescents. This high involvement in sexual activities leads to a loss of adolescents’ reproductive health problems such as unwanted or teenage pregnancy, abortion, STis, RTis, school dropout and single parenthood.

Therefore, to equip boys and girls with knowledge and skills about their reproductive health and its effect on their entire lives and solve these problems, their reproductive health problems have to be discovered. More so, many of these problems have been observed among Ojo adolescents.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study investigated the reproductive health problem

female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state.

This will greatly help non-governmental organisations (NGOs), governmental organizations, and private sectors involved with reproductive health programs. It will contribute to the body of knowledge and stimulate other researchers into studies of similar nature.

1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The questionnaire was administered when the schools were about to vacate for holidays. Hence, most female students were not readily available, which affected the total number of questionnaires collected. A total of 200 questionnaires were collected instead of 285.

 

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Will peer pressure have a relative effect on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state?
  2. Will there be any relative effect of media influence on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state?
  3. Will there be any relative effect of early initiation into sexual act either through rape, incest or other means on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State?
  4. Will there be any relative effect of lack of knowledge of sexual and reproductive issues on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state?
  5. Will there be any effect of lack of parental care on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State?

 

 

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

  1. There is no significant effect of peer pressure on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in the Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state?
  2. There is no significant effect of media influence on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state.
  3. There is no significant effect of early initiation into sexual act either through rape, incest or other means on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  4. There is no significant effect of lack of knowledge of sexual and reproductive issues on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state.
  5. There is no significant effect of lack of parental care on reproductive health problems of female adolescents in selected senior secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.
  • DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This study was delimited to the followings:

  1. Female adolescents in the selected secondary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos state.
  2. Descriptive survey research design.
  3. Descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage
  4. Inferential statistics of chi-square test hypothesis at 0.5 alpha level significance.
  5. A self-structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection.
  6. Independent variables of peer pressure, media influence, early initiation into a sexual act, lack of knowledge of sexual and reproductive issues and lack of parental care.
  7. Dependent variables of reproductive health problems (unwanted pregnancy, STIs, RTI and abortion)

1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS 

  1. ADOLESCENTS: senior secondary school students between the age of 13-17years
  2.  REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEM: unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted initiations, reproductive tract infections, early marriages, abortion and school dropout.

iii.   W.H.O: World Health Organization

  1. HEALTH: The state of complete well-being and not merely in the absence of diseases
  2. REPRODUCTION: The ability of a living organism to give birth to a new organism of the same species.

 

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